The Atom

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Basic structure of the atom and introduction to periodic table

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The Atom

  1. 2. Vocabulary <ul><li>ATOM -An atom is the smallest unit that maintains the characteristics of an element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus - The center of the atom, contains protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Cloud –Region surrounding the nucleus containing the electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ELEMENT - A chemical substance that is composed of atoms with the same number of protons in the nucleus </li></ul>
  2. 3. The Atom
  3. 4. The Atom
  4. 5. Protons Neutrons Nucleus
  5. 6. <ul><li>http://www.geocities.com/Yosemite/Rapids/1111/adamsfamsong.htm </li></ul>Chorus: They are so small. (Snap, snap) They’re round like a ball. (Snap, snap) They make up the air. They’re everywhere. Can’t see them at all. (Snap, snap) 2nd Verse: Together they make gases, And liquids like molasses, And all the solid masses, The Atoms Family Chorus: They are so small. (Snap, snap) They’re round like a ball. (Snap, snap) They make up the air. They’re everywhere. Can’t see them at all. (Snap, snap) Chorus: They are so small. (Snap, snap) They’re round like a ball. (Snap, snap) They make up the air. They’re everywhere. Can’t see them at all. (Snap, snap) 1st Verse: They’re tiny and they’re teeny, Much smaller than a beany, They never can be seeny, The Atoms Family. 3rd Verse: Neutrons can be found, Where protons hang around; Electrons they surround The Atoms Family.
  6. 7. The Nucleus <ul><ul><li>Proton- A positively charged sub-atomic particle (+). Atomic Mass=1 amu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of protons is the same as the atomic number </li></ul></ul>The atomic mass Li 3 7 The atomic mass The Atomic Symbol
  7. 8. The Nucleus <ul><ul><li>Neutrons –A sub-atomic particle in the nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Has a mass equal to 1 atomic mass unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>--Neutron do not have a charge (0) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To calculate the number of neutrons in an element… </li></ul></ul>The atomic mass <ul><li>The atomic mass </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>The number of neutrons </li></ul>Li 3 7 The atomic number The atomic mass
  8. 9. The Atom
  9. 10. The Electron Cloud <ul><ul><li>Electrons- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The number of electrons equals the number of protons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-atomic particle with a negative charge (-) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass of an electron is negligible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons behave as if in a 3-D orbit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Valence Electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The outer most electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valence electrons are responsible for bonding </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Bohr Model <ul><li>The first shell can have </li></ul><ul><li>2 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>The second shell can </li></ul><ul><li>have 8 electrons </li></ul>
  11. 12. Shells and the Electron Cloud
  12. 14. Periodic Table <ul><li>Groups- Arranged by the number of valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Each group has similar bonding properties </li></ul><ul><li>Periods -Arranged by increasing atomic weight </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periods have the same number of shells </li></ul></ul></ul>Example: Group 1…1 valence electron Group 2…2 valence electrons Group 3…3 valence electrons Example: Period 1…1 valence shell Period 2…2 valence shells Period 3…3 valence shells
  13. 15. Periodic Table Periods go across on the periodic table Periods have the same number of “shells” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  14. 16. Periodic Table Groups go down on the periodic table Elements in the same group, have the same number of valence electrons 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 7
  15. 17. Let’s look at a few elements… Hydrogen 1= Proton 1= electron
  16. 18. Let’s look at a few elements… Helium 2=protons 2=neutrons 2=electrons
  17. 19. Let’s look at a few elements… Lithium 3=protons 4=neutrons 3=electrons
  18. 20. Let’s look at a few elements… Fluorine 9=protons 10=neutrons 9=electrons
  19. 21. Let’s look at a few elements… Argon 18=protons 22=neutrons 18=electrons

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