Atomicnotes 7 And 8

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  • 1. Atomic Structure and Periodic Table
    • A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties
    • Atoms are the smallest forms of elements
    • Elements make up the periodic table
    • The periodic table is a map of the elements
  • 2. Structure of an Atom
    • Atom - the most basic unit of matter
    • Element- matter that cannot be changed into a simpler formed. Made up of one kind of atom.
    Periodic Table
  • 3. Models of an Atom
    • During the past 200 years scientists have proposed different models for the atom.
    • Dalton
    • Thomson
    • Rutherford
    • Bohr
    • Electron Cloud
  • 4.
    • J.J.Thomson 1897
      • Viewed atom as a positive charged sphere with negative particles embedded inside it.
      • Example: Plum pudding model/ Blueberry muffin
  • 5.
    • Rutherford Model 1911
      • The atom is mostly empty space.
      • Discovers positively charged nucleus with the Gold foil experiment.
      • Electrons orbit nucleus in a random fashion
  • 6.
    • Bohr Model 1913
      • Similar to Nagaoka model but electrons orbit nucleus in layers(shells).
      • Electrons can jump between shells.
  • 7.
    • Modern Model-Cloud Model
      • Electrons form a negatively charged cloud around the nucleus.
      • Impossible to determine the exact location of the electrons at any one point in time.
  • 8.  
  • 9. Inside the Nucleus
    • Inside the nucleus of the atom the proton and neutrons are found.
    • The proton has a + charge.
    • The Neutron has a neutral charge
  • 10. Atomic Number
    • The atomic number identifies an element
    • This represents the amount of protons and neutrons
  • 11. Electrons
  • 12. Mass Number- the total number of proton and neutrons Atomic Mass Unit - is used to describe the mass of an atom.
  • 13. Elements
    • An element is a substance made up of just one kind of atom
    • The same properties used to describe matter in general can be used to describe the elements in their pure form.
    Luster Ductile Malleable
  • 14. Chemical Symbols A shorthand way to write a chemical name. Usually one or two letters.
  • 15. Compounds A compound is a substance made of two or more elements chemically combined. What are a few ways they can be formed?
  • 16. Type of Compounds
    • A compound made up of molecules is a molecular compound
    • A molecule is a particle of matter made by the sharing of electrons
    • An ionic compound is a combination of positive and negative ions.
    • An ion is a charged particle when an atom gains or loses an electron
  • 17. Mixtures A mixture is formed when two or more different substances are mixed but not chemically combined. heterogeneous homogeneous
    • John Dalton Model 1808
      • Viewed the atom as a SOLID BALL
      • Each element is made of its own unique atom.
      • Atoms are not divisible
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.
    • Electrons are Arranged in energy levels
      • First –can hold 2 electrons
      • Second-can hold 8 electrons
      • Third-can hold 18 electrons
      • Fourth-can hold 32 electrons
      • Etc….
  • 22. Atomic structure
    • Atomic number- Tells how many protons are located in the nucleus of an element.
    • Example: Hydrogen has an atomic number = 1
      • Therefore Hydrogen has 1 proton in it’s nucleus
    • Also tells how many electrons are in the element.
      • Therefore Hydrogen contains 1 electron in it’s cloud.
    Atomic #
  • 23. Atomic structure
    • Mass number= The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
      • Example: Carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons therefore Carbon’s mass number =12.
      • Round the Atomic mass to get the Mass number!
    • Atomic mass= the average of all the isotopes of a particular element found in nature.
    • Isotope= atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
    Atomic mass
  • 24. 13 Al 26.98154 What is the atomic # of Aluminum?_______ What is the atomic mass of Aluminum?_______ What is the mass number of Aluminum?_______ How many protons are found in the Aluminum?__ Electrons?_____ Neutrons?___________
    • 13
    • 26.98154amu
    • 27 amu
    • 13
    • 13
    • 27-13=14
  • 26. ELEMENTS
    • Element Facts
    • Definition- an element is a substance made of the same kind of atoms that cannot be broken into anything other than itself by ordinary physical or chemical means.
    • 113 elements (#113, 115-118 questionable) #114 was made
    • Organized in the periodic table based on properties
    • 91 are naturally found
    • 22 man made in the laboratory
    • 11 gases, 2 liquids (bromine and mercury) rest solids (metals, nonmetals, metalloids) at room temp.
    • Represented by chemical symbols
      • John Berzelenus (Sweden 1800’s started using symbols)
  • 27.  
  • 28.