The main tactic for infantry attacks from 1700 or so was a slow measured advance, with pauses to fire volleys at enemy infantry. The aim was to break the enemy by firepower and leave the pursuit of them to the cavalry. If the defenders did not break and flee, however, a bayonet charge and hand-to-hand combat would be necessary. The French Army was somewhat exceptional in this regard, as many of their officers preferred the a prest attack - a rapid charge using swords or bayonets rather than firepower. However, British General Charles Grey became known as "no flint" Grey because of his fondness for bayonet attacks.
Napoleon always preferred to fight on the offensive, and acting as his own operations officer, made all major decisions. He had the unique talent to conceive a campaign as a complete sequence leading to his main objective: the destruction of the enemy's army or will to fight in one great decisive battle, followed by vigorous pursuit. Careful planning, combining deception and rapid movement, was designed to compel the enemy to fight this battle at a disadvantage. In the Italian campaign of 1796, Napoleon's small army of 35,000 men won victories over the stronger Austrians and Piedmontese by bringing superior strength to bear against each individual enemy force, defeating them in succession. Greater numbers and the corps system enabled Napoleon to develop new strategic sequences. Normally a campaign started with the corps marching widely dispersed along separate routes. Once the enemy's main force was located, the corps pulled closer together, advancing in a diamond‐shaped formation. The first corps to contact the enemy engaged him at once while the other corps came into action along the flanks and the rearmost corps remained reserve. A variant of this strategic movement was Napoleon's famous maneuver in the rear. The enemy would be pinned by what he believed was Napoleon's main force, while the bulk of the French Army swept around to cut his communications and compel him to turn and fight at a disadvantage or to surrender. The 1805 U1m campaign and the Battle of Austerlitz are the most successful examples.
The Training Commands1. Half-cock Firelock Soldier pulls musket cock back onenotch and opens the steel (frizzen).2. Handle Cartridge Soldier slaps cartridge box to settlethe powder in the cartridges, tears openthe cartridge with his teeth, and placesthe opened cartridge under his chin toprotect it.3. Prime Soldier places a small amount of powderin the pan.4. Shut Pan Soldier shuts the steel to hold thepowder in the pan and casts the musketabout in order to place the cartridge inthe barrel.5. Charge with Cartridge Soldier dumps powder down the barrel andthen places the paper-wrapped musket ballsinto the barrel.6. Draw Rammer Soldier draws the ramrod out.7. Ram Down Cartridge Soldier rams paper-wrapped musket ballsdown securely on top of the powder withthe ramrod.8. Return Rammer Soldier returns ramrod to its placebeneath the barrel.9. Shoulder Firelock Soldier holds musket steady on the leftshoulder.10. Poise Firelock Soldier places musket in the readyposition.11. Full-cock Firelock Soldier pulls musket cock back to secondnotch.12. Take Aim Soldier levels musket.13. Fire Fires musket.
The musket age
The Musket Age<br />Lily C<br />Chris B<br />
Musket History<br />Musket like weapons can be traced back all the way to the 14th century in China. But they were not like the muskets that were used in later years<br />Were developed to replace inaccurate <br /> and cumbersome hand cannons<br />Muskets were developed in the 16th<br /> century in Spain and soon spread <br /> throughout Europe.<br />
Tactics<br />Infantry organized into ranks<br />Traditionally three ranks (British were famous for only using two ranks) allowing one rank to reload while the other fires.<br />Used slow measured advances<br />Organized into <br />Artillery<br />Cavalry<br />Infantry<br />
Technology<br />Rifling (concept introduced in the 1800’s)<br />Spiraling ridges on the interior of a rifle<br />Improves distance<br />Improves accuracy<br />Muskets<br />Muzzle-loaded<br />Accurate up to 60 meters<br /> An experienced soldier could fire up to three shots per minute<br />Bayonets<br />Knifes designed to fit on the end of a musket<br />Three sided = economically efficient<br />
Napoleonic Warfare<br />Napoleon preferred to fight on the <br />offensive <br />His intent was to destroy the enemy and then pursue them<br />He also tried to make the enemy fight and a disadvantage<br />One corps would engage in battle while the others flanked the enemy.<br />The last corps was used as a reserve<br />
The American Revolution<br />When the Americans entered the war they were poorly trained<br />Valley Forge<br />Baron von Steuben introduced new drills<br />Combat commands, training commands, and musket drills.<br />The Continental Army learned to march with precision and were able to execute orders very well. <br />
The American Revolution, cont.<br />The most common weapons in the American Revolution were muzzle loading flintlock muskets and cannons<br />Muskets weren’t very accurate so they fired in volleys.<br />