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Scientific Revolution

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Some notes for the scientific revolution and the Enlightenment. We will actually come back to this and cover the Enlightenment separately at a later time. For now, just concentrate on everything up …

Some notes for the scientific revolution and the Enlightenment. We will actually come back to this and cover the Enlightenment separately at a later time. For now, just concentrate on everything up to and including Newton.

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  • 1. The Scientific Revolution Or: How Europeans Learned to Control the World
  • 2. The Scientific Revolution
    • Adds to the sense that humans can know and learn
    • Suggests Humans are not perfect but can improve
    • Questions the traditional Religious Explanations for events
      • Emphasizes science and Logic over faith.
  • 3. Ancient Ideas
    • Ptolemy
      • Ancient Greek guy
    • Geocentric concept
      • Earth is the center
      • Everything revolves around earth in perfect circles
      • The universe is constant - never changing
  • 4. Copernicus’ Ideas
    • Heliocentric Theory
      • Sun center of Universe (or at least the solar system)
      • He couldn’t PROVE it
      • Explains calendar inconsistencies better
    • Planets orbit sun in perfect circles
  • 5. Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601)
    • A SERIOUS Loner!
      • Observed & mapped over 700 stars in a 20 year period
      • Observations backed up heliocentric theory
    • 1572 Discovered a Supernova
      • What is the significance?
  • 6. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
    • Laws of Planetary Motion
    • Using math and observations, was able to prove Copernicus was right
    • Also found that Planets move in ellipses (ovals)
      • Explains movements better
  • 7. Galileo Galilei
    • Tests gravity on Tower of Pisa
      • Drops weights of various mass
        • 32 ft/sec/sec
    • Telescope
      • Moons of Saturn visible
      • Moon is not perfect
    • Brings up religious questions
      • Why would God NOT put us in the middle of everything?
      • Are we not special?
  • 8. Galileo and the Inquisition Condemned by Church for questioning Creation story Changed his story upon threat of death Later recanted and republished his findings Put under house arrest for life
  • 9. Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727)
    • Explained Gravitation
      • Explains Kepler’s laws
    • Three laws of motion
      • Objects in motion stay in motion
      • Equal and opposite reactions
      • Force on an object is equal to its mass x’s acceleration
  • 10. René Descartes (1595-1650)
    • Deductive Logic
      • Cogito ergo sum
        • I think, therefore I am
      • I can use logic to prove things.
  • 11. Sir Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626)
    • Preferred inductive approach
    • Critical of Descartes
    • Gave primacy to senses & direct experience
    • Scientific Method
  • 12. The European Enlightenment Applying Science to Society
  • 13. Philosophes
    • Voltaire & Other writers
      • Popularized rationalism
      • Reason Can solve the problems of the world
      • Humans perfectible
      • Preferred “Enlightened Despot”
  • 14. John Locke (1632-1704)
    • Applies rationalism to society
    • Argues for Tolerance
    • Society is an agreement in which
      • Individuals give up freedom to protect freedom
      • Have right to overthrow government
  • 15. The Right to Remove Tyrannical Government
    • Whensoever, therefore, the legislative shall transgress this fundamental rule of society. . . Endeavour to grasp themselves or put into the hands of any other an absolute power. . . They forfeit the power the people had put into their hands. . .the people, who have a right to resume their original liberty. . .”
    • John Locke, The Second Treatise of Civil Government
  • 16. Jean-Jaques Rousseau
    • The Social Contract
      • Humans agree to society
      • Contract means must set up laws & abide by them
      • Republic - democracy does not work
      • Elected officials
  • 17. The Social Contract
    • “ Man was born free, but everywhere he is in chains. . . At a point in the state of nature when the obstacles to human preservation have become greater than each individual . . .can cope with. . ., and adequate combination of forces must be the result of men coming together. Still, each man’s power and freedom are his main means of self-preservation. How is he to put them under the control of others without damaging himself. . .?”
    • The state only gains powers by “the right of first holder which the individuals convey to the state.”
    • Each citizen MUST participate in the political process as an individual, not as a member of an interest group.