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Nationalism & Revolutions 1800s
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Nationalism & Revolutions 1800s


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This is three units combined into one rather long slide show. It covers the basics behind France from 1815-1850, as well as German unification and Italian unification movements.

This is three units combined into one rather long slide show. It covers the basics behind France from 1815-1850, as well as German unification and Italian unification movements.

Published in: News & Politics

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  • 1. Revolutions and Unification Europe from 1815-1850
  • 2. Revolutions of 1830 & 1848
    • Revolutions break out in many nations
      • Caused by Liberals wanting changes
      • Industrial Revolution – low wage workers wanting changes
      • Intellectuals (teachers) wanting changes
      • Nationalism – people want to create new countries for their ethnic groups / nationalities
  • 3. Revolutions of 1830 & 1848
    • Almost all of these revolutions are unsuccessful
      • Liberal Revolutionaries can not agree on their goals
      • Conservatives are unified / more organized – thus monarchs stay in power
  • 4. Lets look at some examples France – 1815-1850
  • 5. France After Congress of Vienna
    • Louis XVIII installed as new king of France
      • Conservative – but also a realist
        • Agreed to keep French Parliament / Limited Monarchy
      • Nobody Happy
        • Liberals say he is not liberal enough
        • Conservatives want to go back to an Absolute Monarch
  • 6. Charles X
    • Takes over after Louis XVIII dies in 1824
    • Even more conservative than Louis
      • Wants an Absolute Monarchy again
        • Gets rid of Parliament
        • 1830 Passes the July Ordinances
          • No freedom of press
          • Restrictions on rights to vote
    • Liberals revolt against the July Ordinances
    • Charles forced to flee to England
  • 7. Louis Phillip
    • “The Bourgeoisie Monarch”
      • Presents himself as more liberal
      • In reality, he must keep the support of conservatives.
        • Favors the wealthy / Upper middle class
          • Middle class gets right to vote
        • Against Socialism
      • 1848 – Liberals revolt – Led by Socialists
        • Factory Workers and Intellectuals (Professors)
  • 8. Louis Blanc
    • 1848 - comes to power
      • Only lasts a few months
      • Socialist
    • Establishes “workhouses”
      • Government controlled businesses
      • Everyone guaranteed a job
        • “ Busywork” type of jobs
        • Must raise taxes to pay for these workhouses
    • Middle Class (conservatives) revolts
    • Louis Flees to England
  • 9. Louis Napoleon
    • Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte
      • Takes advantage of the family name
      • Elected, sets himself up as Emperor – just like his old uncle did
      • Passed some reforms
        • Male suffrage (voting)
        • Promotes railroads and work programs
      • Cracks down on dissent (disagreement)
        • Censors newspapers, professors,
        • Outlaws other political parties
  • 10. Louis Napoleon
    • Tries to make France great again
      • Gains colonies in North and West Africa
      • Builds Suez Canal
      • Tries to gain Mexico
        • Unsuccessful
      • Gets involved in Crimean War against Russia
        • Does not get much out of it
    • Ends up in a war with Prussia in 1870
      • Franco-Prussian War
        • Disaster for France
        • Loses Alsace and Lorraine territories
  • 11. Next Up - Germany From 1815-1870 green book p 464-465, 537-540
  • 12. Germany in 1815
    • There is no Germany in 1815
      • Just a collection of independent German kingdoms and principalities and baronies
      • Prussia is the largest and most powerful German kingdom
      • German states organized into a loose Confederation under the supervision of Austria
  • 13. Obstacles to German Unity
    • Austria, France and Russia all feared a unified German would be a powerful threat
    • Smaller German states feared a unified Germany would mean Prussian control
    • Catholic German states in the south feared Protestant Lutheran states in the north would dominate
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16. Prussian Leadership
    • A strong Prussian Army dominated the German states
    • Junkers (wealthy German Nobles) and Capitalists (businessmen) dominated the German Parliament
      • Prussian ownership of the Ruhr and its coal fields fueled the economic growth of Prussia during the Industrial Revolution
  • 17. Prussian Leadership continued
    • Prussia was an authoritarian state.
    • Believed in Militarism
      • Strong army
      • Army would carry out the needs of the government
  • 18. Germany 1848
    • Liberals demand reforms.
      • Constitution
      • Workers rights
    • Revolt suppressed by Fredrick Wilhelm IV – emperor of Prussia
    • 1849 – German Parliament tries to unify German States into one country
      • Offer the crown of the new Germany to Fredrick Wilhelm IV.
      • He turns them down and disbands Parliament
    • German unification put on hold
  • 19. Prussia under Bismarck
    • 1860s – Prussia led by Otto von Bismarck
      • Prime minister of Prussia
      • Unite Germany with “Blood and Iron”
      • Believed in “Realpolitik”
        • Politics of reality – not idealism.
      • Best way to unify people?
        • A good old fashioned war
  • 20. Franco – Prussian War
    • Both Prussia and France saw war as a great way of uniting their populations in a common cause
    • Fought over – of all things- who should be king of Spain. (go figure)
    • Prussia wins big time
      • Emperor William I named Kaiser of a united Germany – dominated by Prussia
      • Bismarck turns Germany into an efficient, military and industrial giant.
  • 21. Unification of Italy
  • 22. Italy in early 1800s
    • Obstacles to Unity
      • Italy is a collection of separate kingdoms
      • Most kingdoms ruled by outside powers
        • Naples – Spain
        • Venice & Lombardy – Austria
        • Papal states – Pope / Church
  • 23.                                                                                                                           
  • 24. The Leaders
    • Giuseppe Mazzini
      • The “soul” of Italian unity
      • Leads a secret nationalistic movement
        • “ Young Italy Society”
        • Wanted unified Italy
        • Wanted Italy to be a democracy / republic
    • Viktor Emmanuel II and Camillo Cavour
      • Led the “Resorgimento” (revival)
      • Cavour is the “brains” behind the operation
      • King Victor Emmanuel is the “Heart”
  • 25.  
  • 26. 1848 Revolution
    • Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia stood up to Austria
      • Fought Austria to aid other Italian states under control of Austria
        • Lost – but gained the respect of all Italians
    • King of Piedmont forced out, but his son Viktor Emmanuel II and Cavour step in to take over – good move
  • 27.  
  • 28. 1859 Things looking up
    • France and Austria go to war.
    • Piedmont, allies with France.
    • When France wins, Piedmont gets Lombardy from Austria.
      • Piedmont now seen as most influential Italian kingdom.
      • People in other kingdoms rise up and join Piedmont.
        • Tuscany, Modena, Parma
  • 29. Piedmont
  • 30. Enter Garibaldi
    • Giuseppe Garibaldi
      • The “Sword” of Italian unity
      • Formed a volunteer army of nationalists
        • “ 1,000 Red Shirts”
      • Sailed to Sicily and took it over.
      • Sailed to Southern Italy
        • Moved up through Italy conquering and unifying
        • Ended up unifying nearly all of Italy
  • 31. Garibaldi continued
    • Good general, lousy politician – and he knew it.
    • After unifying most of Italy, he turned control over to Viktor Emmanuel.
      • Knew Emmanuel was a better politician who could lead all of Italy
    • Not all is perfect – but Italy is beginning to look like the Italy we know today
  • 32.