Revolutions and Unification Europe from 1815-1850
Revolutions of 1830 & 1848 <ul><li>Revolutions break out in many nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by Liberals wanting ...
Revolutions of 1830 & 1848 <ul><li>Almost all of these revolutions are unsuccessful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal Revoluti...
Lets look at some examples France – 1815-1850
France After Congress of Vienna <ul><li>Louis XVIII installed as new king of France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative – b...
Charles X <ul><li>Takes over after Louis XVIII dies in 1824 </li></ul><ul><li>Even more conservative than Louis </li></ul>...
Louis Phillip <ul><li>“The Bourgeoisie Monarch” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents himself as more liberal </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Louis Blanc <ul><li>1848 - comes to power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only lasts a few months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociali...
Louis Napoleon <ul><li>Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes advantage of the family name </li></ul></u...
Louis Napoleon <ul><li>Tries to make France great again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gains colonies in North and West Africa </li...
Next Up - Germany From 1815-1870 green book  p 464-465, 537-540
Germany in 1815 <ul><li>There is no Germany in 1815 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just a collection of independent German kingdoms...
Obstacles to German Unity <ul><li>Austria, France and Russia all feared a unified German would be a powerful threat </li><...
 
 
Prussian Leadership <ul><li>A strong Prussian Army dominated the German states </li></ul><ul><li>Junkers (wealthy German N...
Prussian Leadership continued <ul><li>Prussia was an authoritarian state. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in Militarism </li></...
Germany 1848 <ul><li>Liberals demand reforms.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers right...
Prussia under Bismarck <ul><li>1860s – Prussia led by Otto von Bismarck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime minister of Prussia </...
Franco – Prussian War <ul><li>Both Prussia and France saw war as a great way of uniting their populations in a common caus...
Unification of Italy
Italy in early 1800s <ul><li>Obstacles to Unity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy is a collection of separate kingdoms </li></ul...
                                                                                                                          
The Leaders <ul><li>Giuseppe Mazzini </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “soul” of Italian unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads a ...
 
1848 Revolution <ul><li>Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia stood up to Austria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought Austria to aid o...
 
1859 Things looking up <ul><li>France and Austria go to war. </li></ul><ul><li>Piedmont, allies with France. </li></ul><ul...
Piedmont
Enter Garibaldi <ul><li>Giuseppe Garibaldi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Sword” of Italian unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F...
Garibaldi continued <ul><li>Good general, lousy politician – and he knew it. </li></ul><ul><li>After unifying most of Ital...
 
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Nationalism & Revolutions 1800s

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This is three units combined into one rather long slide show. It covers the basics behind France from 1815-1850, as well as German unification and Italian unification movements.

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Nationalism & Revolutions 1800s

  1. 1. Revolutions and Unification Europe from 1815-1850
  2. 2. Revolutions of 1830 & 1848 <ul><li>Revolutions break out in many nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by Liberals wanting changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution – low wage workers wanting changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectuals (teachers) wanting changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism – people want to create new countries for their ethnic groups / nationalities </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Revolutions of 1830 & 1848 <ul><li>Almost all of these revolutions are unsuccessful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal Revolutionaries can not agree on their goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservatives are unified / more organized – thus monarchs stay in power </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Lets look at some examples France – 1815-1850
  5. 5. France After Congress of Vienna <ul><li>Louis XVIII installed as new king of France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative – but also a realist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed to keep French Parliament / Limited Monarchy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobody Happy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberals say he is not liberal enough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservatives want to go back to an Absolute Monarch </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Charles X <ul><li>Takes over after Louis XVIII dies in 1824 </li></ul><ul><li>Even more conservative than Louis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wants an Absolute Monarchy again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gets rid of Parliament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1830 Passes the July Ordinances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No freedom of press </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions on rights to vote </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberals revolt against the July Ordinances </li></ul><ul><li>Charles forced to flee to England </li></ul>
  7. 7. Louis Phillip <ul><li>“The Bourgeoisie Monarch” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents himself as more liberal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In reality, he must keep the support of conservatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Favors the wealthy / Upper middle class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle class gets right to vote </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Against Socialism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1848 – Liberals revolt – Led by Socialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factory Workers and Intellectuals (Professors) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Louis Blanc <ul><li>1848 - comes to power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only lasts a few months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establishes “workhouses” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government controlled businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone guaranteed a job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Busywork” type of jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must raise taxes to pay for these workhouses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle Class (conservatives) revolts </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Flees to England </li></ul>
  9. 9. Louis Napoleon <ul><li>Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes advantage of the family name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected, sets himself up as Emperor – just like his old uncle did </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed some reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male suffrage (voting) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes railroads and work programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cracks down on dissent (disagreement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Censors newspapers, professors, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outlaws other political parties </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Louis Napoleon <ul><li>Tries to make France great again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gains colonies in North and West Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds Suez Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tries to gain Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsuccessful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gets involved in Crimean War against Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not get much out of it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ends up in a war with Prussia in 1870 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franco-Prussian War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster for France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loses Alsace and Lorraine territories </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Next Up - Germany From 1815-1870 green book p 464-465, 537-540
  12. 12. Germany in 1815 <ul><li>There is no Germany in 1815 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just a collection of independent German kingdoms and principalities and baronies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussia is the largest and most powerful German kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German states organized into a loose Confederation under the supervision of Austria </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Obstacles to German Unity <ul><li>Austria, France and Russia all feared a unified German would be a powerful threat </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller German states feared a unified Germany would mean Prussian control </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic German states in the south feared Protestant Lutheran states in the north would dominate </li></ul>
  14. 16. Prussian Leadership <ul><li>A strong Prussian Army dominated the German states </li></ul><ul><li>Junkers (wealthy German Nobles) and Capitalists (businessmen) dominated the German Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussian ownership of the Ruhr and its coal fields fueled the economic growth of Prussia during the Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Prussian Leadership continued <ul><li>Prussia was an authoritarian state. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in Militarism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Army would carry out the needs of the government </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Germany 1848 <ul><li>Liberals demand reforms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revolt suppressed by Fredrick Wilhelm IV – emperor of Prussia </li></ul><ul><li>1849 – German Parliament tries to unify German States into one country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer the crown of the new Germany to Fredrick Wilhelm IV. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He turns them down and disbands Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><li>German unification put on hold </li></ul>
  17. 19. Prussia under Bismarck <ul><li>1860s – Prussia led by Otto von Bismarck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime minister of Prussia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unite Germany with “Blood and Iron” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in “Realpolitik” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Politics of reality – not idealism. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best way to unify people? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A good old fashioned war </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Franco – Prussian War <ul><li>Both Prussia and France saw war as a great way of uniting their populations in a common cause </li></ul><ul><li>Fought over – of all things- who should be king of Spain. (go figure) </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia wins big time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor William I named Kaiser of a united Germany – dominated by Prussia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bismarck turns Germany into an efficient, military and industrial giant. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Unification of Italy
  20. 22. Italy in early 1800s <ul><li>Obstacles to Unity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy is a collection of separate kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most kingdoms ruled by outside powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naples – Spain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venice & Lombardy – Austria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Papal states – Pope / Church </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23.                                                                                                                           
  22. 24. The Leaders <ul><li>Giuseppe Mazzini </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “soul” of Italian unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads a secret nationalistic movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Young Italy Society” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted unified Italy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted Italy to be a democracy / republic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Viktor Emmanuel II and Camillo Cavour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led the “Resorgimento” (revival) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavour is the “brains” behind the operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Victor Emmanuel is the “Heart” </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. 1848 Revolution <ul><li>Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia stood up to Austria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought Austria to aid other Italian states under control of Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lost – but gained the respect of all Italians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>King of Piedmont forced out, but his son Viktor Emmanuel II and Cavour step in to take over – good move </li></ul>
  24. 28. 1859 Things looking up <ul><li>France and Austria go to war. </li></ul><ul><li>Piedmont, allies with France. </li></ul><ul><li>When France wins, Piedmont gets Lombardy from Austria. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piedmont now seen as most influential Italian kingdom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People in other kingdoms rise up and join Piedmont. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tuscany, Modena, Parma </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 29. Piedmont
  26. 30. Enter Garibaldi <ul><li>Giuseppe Garibaldi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Sword” of Italian unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed a volunteer army of nationalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ 1,000 Red Shirts” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailed to Sicily and took it over. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailed to Southern Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moved up through Italy conquering and unifying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ended up unifying nearly all of Italy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 31. Garibaldi continued <ul><li>Good general, lousy politician – and he knew it. </li></ul><ul><li>After unifying most of Italy, he turned control over to Viktor Emmanuel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knew Emmanuel was a better politician who could lead all of Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not all is perfect – but Italy is beginning to look like the Italy we know today </li></ul>
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