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By: Alex and Nick
US went through three periods during this time
The Civil War
It started in 1861 and ended in 1865
Started because of northern political dominance,
slavery, and northern vs. southern economy.
Confederate Tactics and Strategy
First plan: Dispersed Defensive
To cover as much ground as possible from the top of the
Confederacy, to the ocean.
Second Plan: Offensive Defensive
Sometimes, in order to defend the South, an attack would be
This plan would backfire when the Confederacy actually moved
into the North (Antietam and Gettysburg).
Union Tactics and Strategy
A three pronged strategy.
Phase 1- Try to take control of the “insurrection”,
and squash it.
This did not work, since the South was too stable and too
Phase 2- Take over the Confederate territory
The Union did not see the effects quick enough.
Phase 3- Total War.
This worked, and what eventually ended the war (Sherman’s
March to the Sea).
Battle of Shiloh
Started on April 6th, 1862. ended April 8th, 1862.
The Confederacy fought the Union in the South, in
order to try to maintain the offensive defensive
Also, Confederacy wanted to force Grant away from
the Tennessee River, where Union reinforcements
were expected to be arriving.
Confederacy attacked by surprise on April 6th, early
The plan was to attack in the middle of the night on
the 6th, and to destroy the left side of Grant's army
by flanking it.
Strategically, the Confederacy had the upper hand,
but the union flank was able to hold off the mass of
Confederate forces through the day, for 8 hours.
By the end of the 2nd
day of battle, Union
reinforcements arrived, though the Confederate
general was unaware of this, and ran into battle on
April 8th, it failed miserably.
Union forces were taken by surprise on April 6th, and
were almost immediately overrun. If not for that left
flank, which held at a point called the “hornets nest”,
the battle would have been over.
Eventually, Grant had no choice but to fall back to the
Tennessee River, the best option for him at that time.
Within a day or so, Union reinforcements had arrived,
giving the Union an almost overwhelming force.
The next day, the Union was able to defeat the
Confederacy, killing thousands in a beautiful
What the Battle of Shiloh Meant for the Civil War
Though this battle was not a decisive one, it did have
many lingering effects on the rest of the war.
With over 23,000 casualties, this battle was by far,
the bloodiest of the time, and one of the bloodier
battles in all of the Civil War.
Showed both sides that this war was not going to end
quickly, or quietly.
Forced the Confederacy to realize that they could not
only fight on their homeland, and had to eventually
start to bring the fighting to the North.
Iron Clads and ships like the Augusta
US Model 1861 Rifle Musket
Rapid Fire Cannon
Telephones and Telegraphs
The Air Balloon
Assembly Line and Interchangeable Parts
The Bessemer Process
Started in 1865 and lasted until 1877.
After the South lost the Civil War, the North worked
hard to try to rebuild the Southern states.
The entire Southern Economy had to be rebuilt from
the ground up, since most of the South was made up
of farmers, and run by the slaves.
Reconstruction helped the United States progress
much more smoothly into the era of Industrialization.
Reconstruction also became extremely important for
helping the United States become, united once again.
One major advantage for The North in the Civil War, was
Industrialization. (more production=more firepower=victory).
Though, after the Civil War and Reconstruction is when the
Industrialization boom began to really hit the U.S.
Industrialization was made possible by the Bessemer Process,
interchangeable parts, and the Assembly Line, along with many other
Was arguably THE reason why the U.S. Became a leading world power
by World Wars I and II, and even today.
Setting the stage for World War I.