many different nation
led to frequent fighting among the greeks
Unification was very difficult
Oligarchy, Monarchy vs Democracy
seperated the greece
from troy, etc.
need for navy
mostly for transportation
This was the most commonly used battle formation in
the Greek Age.
The army would line up in lines with the first three or four
lines would stick spears out. The back lines would stick
spear straight into the air creating a wall of spears.
They would lock the shields so that each person was
blocking half of the body of the person next to them.
Before the phalanx tatic was thought of Greek soldiers
fought in a completly different manner.
Weakness in Phalanx
Bulky in size
once into enemy lines, it became disorganized fighting
since the men would have shields to their right, the lines
would drift to the right
this was fixed by putting more skilled and experienced
soliders on the right side
followed by Phalanx
when fighting phalanx vs phalanx
lines are at halt
matter of one line to break into the phalanx of
Othismos is when the back soliders tries to push the
Types of Soldiers
Hoplites (Heavy Infantry)
These were the soldiers who were the ones doing the
They were the ones who typically used a phalanx.
Were given a heavy circle shield, a spear, a breast plate,
and a helmet.
Consisted of archers and javelin throwers.
While riding horses they were armed with spears.
Soldiers that ran along side the horses with the calvary
men were called hamippis.
Hamippis were typically armed with a spear or a sword.
A new Ship with 3 sets of rows
More defensive as well
used as transportation
Example in Trojan War
Battle of Thermopylae
It was the first time the Greek navy was used in a battle.
Thermistocles was able to use the Greek navy to help
become a deciding factor in the outcome.
Although they had to retreat Thermistocles was able to
think of a new strategy to beat the Persian navy.
King Leonidas of Sparta led over 4,000 soldiers to meet
Xerxes, son of Darius I, before he got to Sparta.
The battle was fought in a pass that the Spartans knew
about that allowed a very little of Xerxes army to be able to
They were able to hold the Persians off and could have
continued until a traitor told Xerxes of a way around the
pass leading to Leonidas sending away all but his 300
Spartan to fight until the death.
Paris, prince of troy, ran off with King Menelaus of Sparta's
Helen is supposedly famous for her beauty
Menelaus angered, went to Agamemnon, man who united
greece with fear and control
entire army of greece set sail for troy
Troy had unbreachable wall
one of the best aries led by Prince Hector
Illiad shows Hector vs Achilies
Odysseus, wise king of Ithaca, created Trojan Horse
Troy was breached, burned down, and defeated
Based on the Illiad
"The Ancient Greek Trireme and Its Modern Equivalent." Web. 23 Oct. 2010. <http://www.richeast.org/htwm/Greeks/kapost/ship.html>.
This site was used for sole purpose. it was used to get information on the Greek Trireme. it stated that it was very mobile and defensive
compared to the past models. Trireme included 3 sets of rows or ores that requires many people to operate but very fast once it is done. it
included a prime example such from Trojan War.
"Ancient Greek Warfare." Essortment Articles: Free Online Articles on Health, Science, Education & More.. Web. Oct.-Nov. 2010. <http:
This website was extrmely resourceful. it included many basic and detail facts about greek warfare. this was my our central site researching
further based off this. it showed various exmaples of phalanx, units, and even weaknesses. it showed political, economical, and social
viewpoint of war.
"Ancient Greek Warfare." Kidipede - History for Kids - Homework Help for Middle School. Web. 23 Oct. 2010. <http://www.historyforkids.
this website was used to create the intro slide. it showed many key points about geography and basic political structure. it stated the presence
of city states and the difficulty of unification due to it. it proved frequent fighting amongs the greeks also. the natural geography seperates
greece from Asia Minor.
Homer, and Robert Fitzgerald. The Illiad. London: Collins Harvill, 1985. Print.
This is by far the most interesting source. this is written by homer with great detail of the Trojan War. all texts are not quite proven true but
it shows the social historical viewpoint. i used many key information on the trojan war based on this book. ofcourse, due to the age and
crdibility of this book, i was not sure what was truth or what was false but i did present them in a way that ensures the audience to know it is
strictly based on homer.
Luginbill, Robert D.
"Othismos: The Importance of the Mass-Shove in Hoplite Warfare." Jstor. Web. 23 Oct. 2010.
This website was useful because it held so much information while providing a primary document. i got most of my information of
Othismos. it said that it was a pushfrom the backlines of the phalanx against enemy phalanx to break into their lines. once the enemy is
penetrated it becomes a disorganized war. examples of phalanx was also shown here.
"Thermopylae." Livius. Articles on Ancient History. Web. 23 Oct. 2010. <http://www.livius.org/th/thermopylae/thermopylae1.html>.
This website was used for the battle of Thermopylae. it claimed many truths and myths about the famous 300 spartans. it showed examples
of phalanx in various battles and showed greek warfare vs other nations. although severely outnumbered, greeks were able to damage the
opponent for well. it showed success and failures of phalanx.