Chap 2 Experiments for Psych

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Quick and dirty look at Chap 2 for our Psych class.

Quick and dirty look at Chap 2 for our Psych class.

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  • 1. How to conduct research experiments
  • 2. Difficulties Encountered
    • MANY variables
      • Psychology deals with behavior of living things.
      • Subjects behavior may change if subjects know they are being studied
      • Researchers behavior may change based on what they EXPECT or WANT to see
      • Subjects behavior may change based on how the RESEARCHER acts (consciously or unconsciously)
      • Even eliminating all variables creates a variable
  • 3. Why did I pick this picture?
  • 4. Types of Variables
    • Independent – the variable that the researcher will change as part of the study
    • Dependent – variables that occur as a result of changes in the independent variable
  • 5. Example
    • “ Students score higher on SATs in the morning than in the afternoon.”
      • The independent variable is the time of day the SAT is taken
      • The dependent variable is the score they get as a result of the independent variable
  • 6. Creating a Good Hypothesis
    • A hypothesis must be specific and definable
    • How about this?
      • “ Religious people tend to be more helpful than non-religious people.”
      • In your book - define “religious”
  • 7. Try your own
    • Get into groups of three. As a team, brainstorm to create hypothesis that incorporates an independent variable and a dependent variable.
    • Come up with as many as you can in ten minutes.
    • It should be something we can test in school
    • After brainstorming, you will chose one that you will actually use in a later experiment
  • 8. Example Hypothesis
    • “ Student who take part in extra curricular activities get better grades”
  • 9. Experimentation
    • To test hypothesis, we generally use two groups – a control group and an experimental group
      • Control group is unaffected by the independent variable
      • Experimental group is subjected to the independent variable
  • 10. Problems we may encounter
    • Remember: Subject behavior may change BECAUSE they are being studied
      • May try to please the researcher (consciously or unconsciously)
      • May change because they THINK they should be changing
      • Subjects behavior may change based on how the RESEARCHER acts (consciously or unconsciously)
      • Stereotypes – researcher may have a predetermined outcome in mind that may skew the experiment
  • 11. Placebo Effects
    • Placebo is a fake drug used to test effects of real drugs
    • How its used
        • Give one group the REAL medication
        • Give the other group a sugar pill that they THINK is the real medication.
        • People taking the placebo may get better because they THINK they are getting the real medication
        • Compare groups
          • Are they getting better because of the drug, or because their mind is making them better on its own, because it EXPECTS the drug to work?
  • 12.  
  • 13. How to fix the problem
    • Double Blind Experiment
    • Neither the subject nor the researcher knows which is the control group and which one is the experimental group
      • (Neither knows who is getting the placebo)
  • 14. Your Turn
    • Explain how you could test your earlier hypothesis.
      • How will you eliminate other variables so your subject is only affected by the independent variable you picked?
  • 15. Methods of Research (p40)
  • 16. Methods of Research
    • Lab experiment
      • Objective, but not very “real world”
      • Good when using animals
      • Good if you need a very controlled environment
  • 17. Field Experiment
    • Conducted in the “Real world”
      • may have many (unexpected, uncontrollable) variables
        • Ex. The effects of heavy traffic on heart rate
          • Put someone in a car, hook them up to monitors, put them in traffic, record the responses.
  • 18. Survey
    • Can gather large amounts of data, but may not be accurate due to questions or answers given
    • Please Answer the Following Survey
      • “ WHS should adopt which of the following policies for next year
      • A. No Dress Code
      • B. A dress code that is rigidly enforced
      • C. A uniform designed by the students
      • D. A uniform consisting of Jacket and Tie for boys and dresses for girls.
  • 19. Naturalistic Observation
    • Observe in natural environment, with the researcher isolated from subjects
        • Can you name the good points and the troublesome points to this method?
  • 20. Methods of Research continued
    • Interview- Can get personal feelings but may not be honest
      • Subject may not be honest
      • Interviewer may be biased
      • Questions may be biased
        • Subconscious cues may bias the interview
  • 21. Case study
    • Use records and previous data to study
    • Past may point to future but may not be applicable or open to interpretation
    • Good for background info, but data gained may not be applicable in all situations
  • 22. Psychological test
    • Objective and accurate if well written but limited in what they can test
      • IQ test is an example
    • Helps eliminate bias found in other types of experiments
    • Work well IF used to test very specific areas.
  • 23. Longitudinal method
    • In depth knowledge over long time, but EXTREMELY time consuming
      • Study kids 3 yrs old, then at 10 yrs old, then in HS, then in college, then at 35. Note development
  • 24. Cross Sectional Method
    • Quick, but may have more variables than expected
    • Get a representative sample from across many types of people
      • Old, young, women, men, different ethnic groups, different social backgrounds,
    • See problems on p44.
  • 25. Your Turn
    • Conduct research on your hypothesis that uses three of the methods above.
    • If doing a survey – write out the questions you will use
    • If doing an interview – write out the questions
  • 26. Ethics in Experimentation
    • AMA has established guidelines for experiments
      • Subjects may always decline to participate at any time.
    • Openness and honesty
      • If this will throw off the results, the experimenter at least must clear things up as soon as possible.
    • Confidentiality
      • ID of subjects kept secret
    • Experimenter must assess the risks carefully and explain the risks to the subject
  • 27.  
  • 28. Example of Ethics Issue