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Western Civilization lecture 8


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  • 1. Industrial Revolution Western Civilization Mr. Mike Lecture 8
  • 2. Agricultural Revolution
  • 3. Seed Drill 1701 A.D.
    • Invented by Jehtro Tull
    • Planted seeds in a straight line and evenly spaced.
      • Seeds did not have to fight over space to grow
      • Fewer seeds wasted.
      • Still used today.
    • More seeds germinated so higher crops yield.
  • 4. Crop Rotation
    • Invented by Charles Townsend
    • Fallow fields = low production.
    • Crop rotation = higher production and the different crops also replenish the nutrients in the soil.
    • Increased food for humans and animals.
  • 5. Effects of Agricultural Revolution
    • Increased Food Supplies
    • Healthier diets
    • Longer life-span
    • Population Increase
    • Greater demand for food products
    • Fewer farmers needed
    • Workers now available to work in factories.
  • 6. Textile Industry
  • 7. The Flying Shuttle
    • Invented by John Kay
    • It allowed thread to be woven into cloth faster.
    • It doubled the amount of cloth output per worker / per day.
    1733 A.D.
  • 8. The Spinning Jenny
    • Invented by James Hargreaves
    • A spinning wheel that works eight threads at a time.
    • It spun cotton into thread
    • There was a shortage of thread before the Spinning Jenny
    • Made a way to produce large amounts of thread.
    1764 A.D.
  • 9. Water frame
    • Invented by Richard Arkwright
    • A wheel turned by moving water.
    • Instead of human power, water power was used.
    • It spun cotton into thread faster.
    1769 A.D.
  • 10. Spinning Mule
    • Invented by Samuel Compton.
    • Up to 400 spindles of thread were working at a time.
    • The spinning mule made better thread.
    • Thread production increased again.
    • Key element to a textile industry
    1769 A.D.
  • 11. Power Loom
    • Invented by Edmund Cartwright
    • Water power
    • Used moving water to weaving thread into cloth.
    1787 A.D.
  • 12. Cotton Gin 1793 A.D.
    • Invented by Eli Whitney
    • Cotton for thread came from American colonies, increasing demand for slaves.
    • Cotton Seeds were difficult to remove
    • Cotton gin removed seeds by machine instead of hand.
    • The cotton gin increased production from 1.5 million pounds to 55 million pounds.
  • 13. Steam Engines
  • 14. Newcomen Steam Engine
    • Thomas Newcomen invented the first steam pump to remove water from coal mines powered by a steam engine.
  • 15. Steam Engine Improvements
    • James Watt improved the steam engine.
    • It had more power, less coal, and it was more reliable.
    • It also enabled the development of a reciprocating engine, with upwards and downwards power strokes more suited to transmitting power to a wheel
    1769 A.D.
  • 16. Puddling Process 1783 A.D.
    • Invented by Henry Cort
    • It refined iron and made it stronger.
    • New techniques for making sheets of iron were developed.
    • This enabled a great expansion of iron production around the world.
  • 17. Bessemer Process 1855 A.D.
    • Invented by Henry Bessemer.
    • A blast of cold air goes through the iron ore to remove all impurities.
    • It made the production of steel (iron mixed with other metals) easier and quicker.
    • Steel was now stronger and more workable.
    • It triggered the growth in other industries.
  • 18. Machine tools
  • 19. Lathe 1855 A.D.
    • Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools.
    • A machine tool which rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, or drilling
    • Used to make furniture, banisters, sports equipment...
    • Modern lathes can shape more materials: metals, plastics...
  • 20. Other Machines 1855 A.D. Cylinder Boring Machine Planer Milling Machine
  • 21. Transportation
  • 22. Roads
    • John McAdams invented a new way of designing roads.
    • He invented a new process, “macadamisation”, for building roads with a smooth hard surface that would be more durable and less muddy than soil-based tracks.
    • Turnpikes were used as a toll.
    • Companies paid to use the roads because they made traveling easier.
    1800 A.D.
  • 23. Railroads
    • The first railroads were built by George Stephenson in 1829.
    • The first steam powered locomotives were invented.
      • The Rocket – 20 mph.
    • In 1850, 5,000 miles of railroad tracks were built in Britain.
    • Steel tracks replaced the iron tracks, and train speeds were up to 60 mph.
    • Raw materials, factories, and workers were now closer together.
    1829 A.D.
  • 24. Steamships
    • Robert Fulton is credited for developing the first steamship.
    • The Clermont was the first commercial steamship used to carry passengers between New York City and Albany, New York.
    • Canals (human made water ways) were created.
    • By 1850, the network of canals reached 4,250 miles!
    1793 A.D.
  • 25. Communications
  • 26. Telegraph
    • Samuel Morse was the American inventor of a single-wired telegraph system and the Morse Code.
    • The telegraph sent messages by electrical impulses.
    • People were now able to communicate within seconds or minutes, instead of waiting days and weeks.
    1793 A.D.
  • 27. Systems
  • 28. Interchangeable Parts 1793 A.D.
    • Eli Whitney introduced the idea of interchangeable parts to the U.S.
    • He built ten guns and disassembled them before the U.S. Congress. He placed the parts in a mixed pile and was able to reassemble all of the guns back in front of the Congress.
    • Before, everything was made by hand, now parts were made by machines
    • Broken machines were now able to be fixed by replacing the broken parts.
  • 29. Factories
    • 1104 – Venice, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, mass-produced ships on assembly lines using manufactured parts.
    • 1761 – Matthew Boulton's Soho Manufactory (produced buttons, buckles and other wares)
    • Cotton mills used inventions such as the steam engine and the power loom
  • 30. Social effects
  • 31. Middle Class
    • The Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry
    • New Social Structure
  • 32. Urbanization
    • The industrial revolution caused a massive shift from agricultural work to factory works
    • Factories were built in cities
    • People began moving to cities for work
  • 33. Child Labor
    • Children often employed in factories.
    • Often used to clean/repair dangerous machines because their hands were smaller
    • Abusive working conditions
  • 34. Poor Work Conditions
    • 10 – 14 hour work days
    • Low wages
    • Little or no benefits
    • Dangerous work conditions
    • Dirty living conditions
    • Physical abuse common at the workplace
  • 35. Pollution
    • Air and water in cities became polluted from factories
    • Chemicals and coal