Western Civilization lecture 12

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  • 1. Western Civilization Mr. Mike Lecture 12
  • 2. Western Civilization
    • Post War Europe
    • Russia pushed the Nazis out of Eastern Europe
    • UK-USA allies pushed the Nazis out of Western Europe
    • Post war Europe closely resembled the East-West liberation of Nazi held territories.
  • 3. Western Civilization
    • The Cold War
    • After WWII Europe was divided between between the East and West
    • The Soviet Union helped to establish communist governments in many parts of Eastern Europe.
    • Warsaw Pact formed a new military alliance between European communist countries
  • 4. Western Civilization The Cold War
    • The USA established the Marshal Plan to rebuild the infrastructure of democratic governments in Western Europe
    • NATO established as a military organization as a check on the Soviet Union
  • 5. Western Civilization The Cold War
    • Germany was split between the Soviet Union (East) and Western Allies (West)
    • Checkpoint Charlie was the border point between East and West Berlin
  • 6. Western Civilization The Cold War
    • 1947 – Truman Doctrine established to contain the spread of communism
    • Growing Distrust between Soviet Union and USA
  • 7. Western Civilization
    • The Cold War
    • The Berlin Blocade
    • Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control
    • Western Allies organized the Berlin Airlift to carry supplies to the people in West Berlin
  • 8. Western Civilization The Cold War
    • The Korean War
    • 1950-1953
    • A military conflict between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China (PRC), with military material aid from the Soviet Union
    • The war was a result of the physical division of Korea by an agreement of the Allies end of World War II
    • Korean War end with a permanent division between North and South Korea.
    • About 2 million people killed during the conflict
  • 9. Western Civilization The Cold War
    • Berlin Crisis of 1961
    • The U.S.S.R. issued an ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of Western armed forces from West Berlin
    • Western Allies refused the ultimatum
    • East and West Berlin were permanently divided
    • East Germany erection of the Berlin Wall to separate the city
  • 10. Western Civilization The Cold War
    • The Vietnam-American War
    • 1955-1975
    • North – Supported by Communist Allies
    • South – Supported by the USA
    • USA never obtained an official declaration of war – it saw its role as aiding South Vietnam
    • Ho Chi Minh warned that if the Americans "want to make war for twenty years then we shall make war for twenty years. If they want to make peace, we shall make peace and invite them to afternoon tea."
    • About 3.5 million people killed during the conflict
  • 11. Western Civilization
    • Decolonization
    • After WWII Popular opinion shifted regarding colonization
    • Many colonized people were frustrated by their involvement in WWI & WWII and the lack of recognition for it
    • Anti-colonization movement spread after WWII
  • 12. Western Civilization
    • Decolonization
    • 1946
    • Ho Chi Minh led the States of French Indo-China in a war of independence against French rule.
  • 13. Western Civilization
    • Decolonization
    • 1947
    • Nationalist uprising in Madagascar against French rule
    • French military stopped the revolt by force killing about 40,000 people
  • 14. Western Civilization
    • The 20 Century
    • Progress???
    • Civilization???
  • 15. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • War
    • 35-40 million soldier killed in war
    • 160 million total people killed in war
  • 16. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Genocide
    • Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1992-1995 - 200,000 Deaths
    • Rwanda: 1994 - 800,000 Deaths
    • Pol Pot in Cambodia: 1975-1979 - 2,000,000 Deaths
    • Nazi Holocaust: 1938-1945 - 11,000,000 Deaths
    • Rape of Nanking: 1937-1938 - 300,000 Deaths
    • Stalin's Forced Famine: 1932-1933 - 7,000,000 Deaths
    • Armenians in Turkey: 1915-1918 - 1,500,000 Deaths
  • 17. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Existentialism
    • Condemned to freedom
    • Life is meaningless, absurd and unfair
    • Existence before meaning
    • Human condition involves despair, anguish, anxiety, absurdity, alienation
    • Albert Camus – the only serious philosophical issue is suicide
  • 18. Western Civilization
    • THE SECOND COMING
    • By William Butler Yeates
    • Turning and turning in the widening gyre
    • The falcon cannot hear the falconer;
    • Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;
    • Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,
    • The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere
    • The ceremony of innocence is drowned;
    • The best lack all conviction, while the worst
    • Are full of passionate intensity.
    • Surely some revelation is at hand;
    • Surely the Second Coming is at hand.
    • The Second Coming! Hardly are those words out
    • When a vast image out of Spiritus Mundi
    • Troubles my sight: a waste of desert sand;
    • A shape with lion body and the head of a man,
    • A gaze blank and pitiless as the sun,
    • Is moving its slow thighs, while all about it
    • Wind shadows of the indignant desert birds.
  • 19. Western Civilization The darkness drops again but now I know That twenty centuries of stony sleep Were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle, And what rough beast, its hour come round at last, Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?
  • 20. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Dadaism
    • Avant-garde – extends the boundaries of what is accepted as art.
    • Post-WWI Movement of modern art
    • Anti-war
    • Anti-Rationalist
    • Asks the question: “What is Art?”
    • Ridicule the meaninglessness of the modern world
  • 21. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Marcel Duchamp
    • French Dadaist
    • Experimented with art to explore what can be considered art
    • Often ridiculed art, especially art critics
    • Ready-made works challenge the standard views of art
  • 22. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Nude Descending a Staircase No.2 (1912)
    • Mechanistic motion
    • Fragmentation of reality
    • Abstraction of reality – not a picture of movement, but the idea of movement
    • Anti-realist form, line, & color
  • 23. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Bicycle Wheel (1913)
    • Duchamp's first Ready-made
    • Bicycle wheel mounted on a stool
    • What can be called art?
    • Can everyday objects be considered art?
  • 24. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • The Fountain (1917)
    • Ready-made art
    • Urinal on it's side signed by Duchamp as “R. Mutt” (the manufacturer of the urinal)
    • Challenged contemporary views of art
    • Mounting everyday objects in a different way causes the viewer to take notice of the object
  • 25. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Cubism
    • Avant-garde art movement
    • Photography – no need for realism in art
    • Deconstruction – Objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form
    • Depicts subjects from multiple viewpoints at the same time
    • Seeming “random” sharp angles
    • Loss of perspective and depth
    • Fractured (broken) reality
  • 26. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Cubism
  • 27. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Pablo Picasso
    • Co-founder of the Cubism
    • Studied and painted realism in his early career
    • Highly experimental painting styles
  • 28. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Science and Charity (Picasso, age 16)
  • 29. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Family of Saltimbanques (1905)
  • 30. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907)
  • 31. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Portrait of Ambroise Vollard (1910)
  • 32. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Guernica (1937)
  • 33. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Surrealism
    • Avant-garde art movement
    • Anti-Rational
    • Unexpected visual arrangements
    • Distorted reality
  • 34. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Salvador Dali
    • Surrealist Painter
    • Know for his eccentric behavior
  • 35. Western Civilization The 20 Century Cruxifixion (Hypercubic Body)
  • 36. Temptation of St. Anthony
  • 37. The Persistence of Memory
  • 38. Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War), 1936
  • 39. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Abstract expressionism
    • Spontaneous, automatic or subconscious creations
    • Anti-figurative Aesthetic
    • Rebellious – against the “rules” of art
    • Very individualistic styles from previous artists and each other
    • Some are Nihilistic – belief that life is meaningless
    Jackson Pollock, No. 5, 1948
  • 40.
    • Jane Frank, Crags and Crevices (1961)
  • 41.
    • Composition VI, (Kandinsky 1913)
  • 42.
    • Franz Kline, Painting Number 2, 1954
  • 43. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Minimalism
    • Painting stripped down to its most fundamental features – lines and color
    • Sometimes called “ABC Art”
    • Reaction against Abstract Expressionism
    • Art was not Self-expression
    • Features included: geometric forms, line, base or primary colors
    Kazimir Malevich, Black Square, 1913
  • 44. Western Civilization The 20 Century
    • Piet Mondrian
    • Non-representational paintings (both anti-realist and anti-expressional)
    • Interested in thick black lines, primary colors and primary shapes
    • “ Composition” (how a painting is organized) became the subject of many pantings
  • 45. Gray Tree, 1912
  • 46. Composition II in Red, Blue, and Yellow, 1930
  • 47. Composition with Yellow, Blue, and Red, 1937–42
  • 48. Composition 10, 1939–1942