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Western Civilization Lecture 11

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  • 1. Western Civilization Mr. Mike Lecture 11
  • 2. Western Civilization
    • World War I
    • Era of Totalitarianism
    • World War II
    • Reaction to Modern War
  • 3. Western Civilization World War I
    • Background
    • Colonialism
    • Conflicts in Imperialistic Foreign Policy between European Empires
    • A complex network of political and military alliances throughout Europe established
    • Colonial Empires paved the way for war to spread globally
  • 4. Western Civilization World War I
    • Background
    • Industrial Revolution
    • Factories used to build up military weapons and navy fleets
    • The U.K. and Germany began an weapons race
    • Eventually every major power in Europe was building up weapons
    • Modern military weapons were more powerful than any in history.
  • 5. Western Civilization World War I
    • Background
    • The Bosnian Crisis
    • Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria declares independence and is proclaimed Tsar
    • 1908-09 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • 1912-13 Balkan Wars
  • 6.  
  • 7. Western Civilization World War I
    • Background
    • The Bosnian Crisis
    • 28 June 1914 – Prince Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austrian-Hungarian throne) assassinated by a Bosnian-Serb
    • 28 July 1914 – Austria-Hungry and Germany declared war on Serbia
    • Serbia and Allies (U.K., France and Russia) Declare war
    • World War I Begins
  • 8. Western Civilization World War I
    • The Central Powers
    • Austro-Hungarian Empire: entered the war on 28 July 1914
    • German Empire (including German colonial forces): 1 August 1914
    • Ottoman Empire: secretly 2 August 1914; openly 29 October 1914
    • Kingdom of Bulgaria: 14 October 1915
  • 9. Western Civilization World War I
    • Triple Entente
    • The United Kingdom
    • France
    • Russia
  • 10. Western Civilization World War I Triple Entente's Allies
    • Andorra
    • Belgium
    • Brazil
    • China
    • Costa Rica
    • Cuba
    • Czechoslovak Legions
    • Greece
    • Guatemala
    • San Marino
    • Serbia
    • Siam
    • Australia
    • Canada
    • India
    • Newfoundland
    • New Zealand
    • South Africa
    • British crown colonies
    • United States
    • Haiti
    • Honduras
    • Italy
    • Japan
    • Liberia
    • Montenegro
    • Nicaragua
    • Panama
    • Portugal
    • Romania
  • 11. Western Civilization World War I
    • Colonies become battle-fields for European War
    • Colonies were required to fight for their European Colonial Authorities
    • Early fighting began in Africa between French, British and Germany Colonial Troops
    • Asia and the Pacific
    • Middle East
  • 12. Western Civilization World War I
    • Modern Weapons
    • Trench Warfare
    • Long trenches dug by opposing armies
    • Slow advances
  • 13. Western Civilization World War I
    • Modern Weapons
    • Hand Grenades
    • Contained explosives and pieces of metal
    • Thrown into trenches
    • Caused massive injuries
  • 14. Western Civilization World War I Tanks
  • 15. Western Civilization World War I Guns
  • 16. Western Civilization World War I MACHINE GUN FIRE: CAMBRIN by Robert Graves (September 25 1915) The torn line wavers, breaks, and falls. 'Get up, come on!' the captain calls 'Get up, the Welsh, and on we go!' (Christ, that my lads should fail me so!) A dying boy grinned up and said: 'The whole damned company, sir; it's dead.' 'Come on! Cowards!' bawled the captain, then Fell killed, among his writhing men.
  • 17. Western Civilization World War I Mortars
  • 18. Western Civilization World War I Poison Gas
  • 19. Western Civilization World War I Flamethrowers
  • 20. Western Civilization World War I Airplanes Warships Submarines
  • 21. Western Civilization World War I
    • Treaty of Versailles
    • Formally Ended the War
    • Formed the League of Nations
    • Germany agreed to pay enormous war reparations and award territory to the victors
    • Caused bitterness in Germany, which gave rise to the Nazis
  • 22. Western Civilization World War I
    • Impact of WWI
    • Social Trauma
    • Ultra Nationalism
    • Anti-Modernism
    • Pacifism
    • Loss of Optimism
    • Questions the idea of Progress
  • 23. Dulce et Decorum Est by Wilfred Owen
    • Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori:
    • mors et fugacem persequitur virum
    • nec parcit inbellis iuventae
    • poplitibus timidove tergo.
    • How sweet and glorious it is to die for one's country:
    • Death pursues the man who flees,
    • spares not the hamstrings or cowardly backs
    • Of battle-shy youths. (Horace – Roman Poet)
    • Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,
    • Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,
    • Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs
    • And towards our distant rest began to trudge.
    • Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots
    • But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind;
    • Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots
    • Of tired, outstripped Five-Nines that dropped behind.
  • 24. Dulce et Decorum Est by Wilfred Owen
    • Gas! Gas! Quick, boys!---An ecstasy of fumbling,
    • Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time;
    • But someone still was yelling out and stumbling,
    • And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime...
    • Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light,
    • As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.
    • In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,
    • He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.
    • If in some smothering dreams you too could pace
    • Behind the wagon that we flung him in,
    • And watch the white eyes writhing in his face,
    • His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin;
    • If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood
    • Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,
    • Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud
    • Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,---
    • My friend, you would not tell with such high zest
    • To children ardent for some desperate glory,
    • The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est
    • Pro patria mori.
  • 25. Western Civilization
    • Benito Mussolini
    • A founder of Italian Fascism
    • 1922 Mussolini took control of Italy by a coup d'état
    • Established a one-party government which was called the “ National Fascist Party”
  • 26. Western Civilization
    • Benito Mussolini
    • Believed that Italy was the rightful heir of the Roman Empire
    • Had a policy of expansion of Italy to reclaim territories that were formally part of the Roman Empire
  • 27. Western Civilization
    • Benito Mussolini
    • Established policies to encourage “social progress” (social Darwinism)
    • Rejected Egalitarianism in favor of a class system
    • Rejected both Socialism and Democracy
    • Established a Dictatorship
  • 28. Western Civilization
    • Benito Mussolini
    • Between 1925 and 1927 dismantled all constitutional limitations to his power
    • 1925 Became “Head of the Government” was was no longer accountable to the parliament
    • Established a Police State
  • 29. Western Civilization
    • Benito Mussolini
    • Took control of all Italian media
    • Instituted censorship and government propaganda
    • 1933 – Italian expansionism resulted in Italy's take over of Ethiopia
  • 30. Western Civilization
    • Adolph Hitler
    • World War I Veteran
    • Angry that Germany lost the war and blamed the Jewish Germans
    • 1919 joined the Nazi Party (DAP) – “German Workers Party”
    • 1921 – Became leader of the reorganized Nazi Party (NSDAP)
  • 31. Western Civilization
    • Adolph Hitler
    • 1923 – Attempted to overthrow the German leadership and establish Nazi rule
    • The attempt failed and Hitler was imprisoned
    • In prison he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
  • 32. Western Civilization
    • Adolph Hitler
    • 1924 – Released from prison
    • Gained public support because of his strong views on German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and anti-communism
  • 33. Western Civilization
    • Adolph Hitler
    • 1933 – Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany
    • Reorganized the Government into the Third Reich
    • Established a single-party system of government under Nazi control
    • Became a Dictator
  • 34. Western Civilization
    • Adolph Hitler
    • 1933 – Withdrew Germany from the League of Nations
    • 1935 – Hitler rejected parts of the Versailles Treaty in order to expand his army
  • 35. Western Civilization
    • Adolph Hitler
    • 1935 – Established the anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws
    • Outlawed marriage between Jews and non-Jews
    • Banned non-Jewish under 45 from working in Jewish homes
    • Deprived non-Aryans of the benefits of German citizenship
  • 36. Western Civilization
    • Adolph Hitler
    • 1936 – Preparation for War
    • Reoccupied the demilitarized zone in the Rhineland violating the Versailles Treaty
    • Issued the "Four-Year Plan Memorandum” to prepare Germany for war
    • Formed an Axis of powers between Germany, Italy and Japan in opposition to Communism
  • 37. Western Civilization
    • Adolph Hitler
    • Action T4
    • Ideology of “Racial Hygiene” - Cleansing for racially unsound elements
    • Euthanasia Program
    • physicians killed thousands of people "judged incurably sick, by critical medical examination"
    • Blind, Mentally Disabled, Physically disabled
    • 275,000 people were killed under T4 by medication, starvation, or in the gas chambers
    “ 60,000 Reichsmarks is what this person suffering from a hereditary disease costs the People's community during his lifetime. Comrade, that is your money too”
  • 38. Western Civilization World War II
    • Pre-War Aggression
    • 1935 – Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia
    • 1937 – Italian and German planes bombed Guernica during the Spanish Civil War
    • 1937 – Japan invaded China as part of its Imperial Expansion
  • 39. Western Civilization World War II
    • Pre-War Aggression
    • 1938 – Japan invaded the USSR and Mongolia
    • 1938 – Germany annexed Austria
    • 1939 – Germany invaded Czechoslovakia
    • 1939 – Italy conquered Albania
  • 40. Western Civilization World War II
    • Pre-War Aggression
    • Britain and France promise to support and defend Poland from a potential invasion by Germany
  • 41. Western Civilization World War II
    • World War II Begins
    • 1939
    • 1 September 1939 Germany attacked Poland
    • 3 September 1939 Britain and France declare war on Germany
    • United States decided to remain neutral in the conflict
  • 42. Western Civilization World War II
    • World War II Begins
    • 1939
    • Ribbentrop Pact signed between the Soviet Union and Germany
    • USSR also invaded Poland and divides the country between the USSR and Germany
    • Russia invaded Finland
    • U.K. and France vote to remove USSR from the League of Nations
  • 43. Western Civilization World War II
    • World War II Events
    • 1940
    • Germany invaded Denmark and Norway
    • German 'Blitzkrieg' overwhelms Belgium, Holland and France.
    • Churchill becomes Prime Minister of Britain.
    • Germany attempts to gain air superiority over the U.K.
    • 40,000 Britain civilians killed during German bombings
  • 44. Western Civilization World War II
    • World War II Events
    • 1941
    • Hitler begins Operation Barbarossa - the invasion of Russia.
    • Germany invades Greece and Yugoslavia.
    • Allies take Tobruk in North Africa, and resist German attacks.
    • Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, and the US enters the war.
  • 45. Western Civilization World War II
    • World War II Events
    • 1942
    • Germany suffers setbacks at Stalingrad and El Alamein.
    • Singapore falls to the Japanese in February - around 25,000 prisoners taken.
    • American naval victory at Battle of Midway, in June, marks turning point in Pacific War.
    • Mass murder of Jewish people at Auschwitz begins.
  • 46. Western Civilization World War II
    • World War II Events
    • 1943
    • Surrender at Stalingrad marks Germany's first major defeat.
    • Allied victory in North Africa enables invasion of Italy to be launched.
    • Italy surrenders, but Germany takes over the battle.
    • British and Indian forces fight Japanese in Burma.
  • 47. Western Civilization World War II
    • World War II Events
    • 1944
    • Allies land at Anzio and bomb monastery at Monte Cassino.
    • Soviet offensive gathers pace in Eastern Europe.
    • D-Day: The Allied invasion of France. Paris is liberated in August.
    • Guam liberated by the US
    • Okinawa, and Iwo Jima bombed.
  • 48. Western Civilization World War II
    • World War II Events
    • 1945
    • Auschwitz liberated by Soviet troops.
    • Russians reach Berlin: Hitler commits suicide and Germany surrenders on 7 May.
    • Truman becomes President of the US on Roosevelt's death, and Attlee replaces Churchill.
    • After atomic bombs are dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan surrenders on 14 August.
  • 49. Western Civilization World War II
    • World War II Events
    • The Holocaust
    • Between 11-17 million people killed
    • Romani, Sinti, Soviet prisoners of war, Polish and Soviet civilians, homosexuals, people with disabilities, Jehovah's Witnesses and other political and religious opponents
    • 6 million European Jews
  • 50. Western Civilization World War II
    • World War II Events
    • The Holocaust
    • Concentration Camps
    • Forced labor (slavery)
    • Many died of hunger, exhaustion and disease in the camps
  • 51. Western Civilization World War II
    • World War II Events
    • The Holocaust
    • Extermination Camps
    • Many built in German occupied territories
    • Prisoners performed force labor until they died of starvation, exhaustion or brutal beatings
    • Gas chambers were used to perform mass executions

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