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Western Civilization Lecture 10
 

Western Civilization Lecture 10

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    Western Civilization Lecture 10 Western Civilization Lecture 10 Presentation Transcript

    • Western Civilization Mr. Mike Lecture 10
    • Western Civilization
      • Charles Darwin & Evolution
      • Impact of Darwinism
      • Colonialism
      • Art: Impressionism & Post-Impressionism
    • Western Civilization
      • Charles Darwin
      • English Naturalist
      • Natural explanation of the origins and decent of biological species
      • 5-year Voyage on HMS Beagle studying/collecting species specimens
    • Western Civilization
      • Darwin's Theory
      • All species of life have descended over time from common ancestry
      • Transmutation of species – The Process by which one species changes into another species
    • Western Civilization
      • Darwin's Theory
      • Natural Selection
      • Survival of the Fittest : Organisms with traits which are better adapted for immediate, local environment survive to pass the trait on.
    • Western Civilization
      • Darwin's Theory
      • Sexual Selection
      • Female choice of suitable males which impacts what traits get passed on to offspring from the male.
    • Western Civilization
      • Darwin's Theory
      • God
      • Believed in God as the ultimate natural law giver.
      • “ I have never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God. – I think that generally ... an agnostic would be the most correct description of my state of mind.”
    • Western Civilization
      • The Enlightenment & Darwinism
      • Enlightenment concept of “progress”
      • Speculated that societies progressed through stages of increasing development – Western logic and science as seen as evidence of more developed cultures
      • Societies begin as primitive then progress toward industrialized Europe
      • Darwin's theory was seen as “scientific evidence” of progress
    • Western Civilization
      • Implications of Darwinism
      • Wider Gap between Religion and Science
      • Origins of man and other species now had a theory that did not need religion
      • Rise in Scientific Atheism
    • Western Civilization
      • Implications of Darwinism
      • Social Darwinism
      • Herbert Spencer drew parallels between his own economic theories and Darwin's biological ones
      • Developed a model that applied the law of the survival of the fittest to society
      • Humanitarian impulses had to be resisted as nothing should be allowed to interfere with nature's laws.
    • Western Civilization
      • Implications of Darwinism
      • Social Darwinism & Eugenics
      • Advocates practices to improve the human gene pool.
      • Used in Western countries to support racist immigration laws and laws against inter-racial marriage.
      • In severe cases used to advocate genocide.
      • Advocated the killing of old people because they are no longer productive
    • Western Civilization
      • Implications of Darwinism
      • Social Darwinism & Industry
      • Laissez-faire – French: means “let do,” but it broadly implies “let it be,” or “leave it alone.”
      • Argued against regulations of any industries
      • Social Darwinists supported Laissez-faire politics as a form of economic “natural selection”
    • Western Civilization
      • Implications of Darwinism
      • Social Darwinism & Racism
      • Ethnic races were categorized into higher and lower
      • Led to ideas of racial supremacy
      • Used as a justification for slavery
    • Western Civilization
      • Social Implications of Darwinism
      • Social Darwinism & Politics
      • Imperialism - an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination
      • Social Darwinists supported imperialism as an example of cultural evolution
    • Western Civilization
      • Social Implications of Darwinism
      • Social Darwinism & Politics Fascism
        • Purge forces, ideas, and systems deemed to be the cause of decadence and degeneration
        • Promote violence and war as actions that create national regeneration
        • Conflict as a fact of life that is responsible for all human progress.
    • Western Civilization
      • Social Implications of Darwinism
      • Social Darwinism & Politics
      • Nazism – A form of fascism that incorporated biological racism and antisemitism (against Jews)
      • Believed in the supremacy of an Aryan Master Race (Germans)
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • A period of history from the late 15th to the 20th century when European nation states established colonies on other continents
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • Maintained an imperialist ideology
      • World is divided between civilized and uncivilized
      • Colonial Imperialists believed themselves to be agents of civilization
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • The White Man's Burden
      • Belief that white people have an obligation to rule over, and encourage the “cultural development” of people from other ethnic backgrounds until they fully adopt Western “civilized” culture
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • The White Man's Burden
      • By Rudyard Kipling 1899
      • Take up the White Man's burden--
      • Send forth the best ye breed--
      • Go bind your sons to exile
      • To serve your captives' need;
      • To wait in heavy harness,
      • On fluttered folk and wild--
      • Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
      • Half-devil and half-child.
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • Began in the Age of Exploration
      • Portugal and Spain discovered new lands and set up trading posts
      • Trading posts became colonies under Portuguese and Spanish rule
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • The British Empire
      • Settlements established by Royal trading companies
      • 1607 First Permanent Settlement in the Americas by the Virginia Company – Names Jamestown after King James I
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • The British Empire
      • 1670 - King Charles II granted the Hudson's Bay Company a monopoly on the fur trade in a vast stretch of territory that would later make up a large proportion of Canada.
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • The British Empire
      • 1672 - the Royal African Company established a supply of slaves to British colonies of the Caribbean
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • The British Empire
      • The Slave Trade became an important part of the colonial economic system in the British Empire, especially in the American colonies
      • 3.5 million African slaves were brought to the Americas
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • The British Empire
      • 1639 – British East India Company established a trading fort in Madras, India.
      • Trading started with spices then eventually turned to textiles after a long dispute and war with the Netherlands.
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • The British Empire
      • 1757 – At the Battle of Plassey the British defeated the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies
      • British controlled Bengal and as the major military and political power in India.
      • It gradually increased control by force through the British Indian Army across India.
      • British India eventually grew into the Empire's most valuable possession, "the Jewel in the Crown"
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • The British Empire
      • The East India Company helped to expand the British Empire in Asia.
      • The Company's army had first joined forces with the Royal Navy
      • Together they took control of Egypt (1799), Java (1811), Singapore (1819) and Burma (1826).
    • Western Civilization
      • “ The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • Impact of British Colonialism
      • English as a Global Language – About 1.8 Billion people speak English today
      • The USA
      • Industrial Revolution Spread through the British Empire
      • Africa ravaged by Slave trade – Many believe that the poverty in Africa today is a result of the Slave Trade
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • French Colonial Empire
      • Second Largest Colonial Empire behind the British
      • 1605 – Founded of Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America (now Nova Scotia, Canada)
      • 1608 – Samuel De Champlain founded Quebec which became the capital of the enormous fur-trading colony of New France
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • French Colonial Empire
      • 1664 – the colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti) was founded on the western half of the Spanish island of Hispaniola. In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue grew to be the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean.
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • French Colonial Empire
      • 1624 – Establish trading posts along the coast of West Africa
      • 1664 – French East India Company was established to compete for trade in the east
      • 1887 – Formed French Indochina which included: Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos
      • Colonies and Trade Posts were established across North and West Africa
    • Western Civilization
    • Western Civilization
      • Colonialism
      • Reasons for Colonialism
      • Economic Trade
      • Spread “Civilization”
      • Extreme National Identities
      • Competition between Trading Companies and European powers
      • Religious motivation to “Christianize” the world
    • Western Civilization The Colonial World in 1914
    • Western Civilization
      • Impressionism
      • visible brush strokes
      • open composition
      • common, ordinary subject matter
      • abstraction
      • perception and experience not reality
      • unusual visual angles
      • Movement of light
    • Western Civilization
      • Impressionism
      • Claude Monet
      • The term Impressionism is derived from the title of his painting Impression, Sunrise
      • Painted his “impressions” of subjects
      • Several Paintings of his wife Camille
    • Western Civilization
      • Claude Monet
      Impression, Sunrise 1872
    • Western Civilization
      • Claude Monet
      On the Bank of the Seine, Bennecourt (1868)
    • Western Civilization
      • Claude Monet
      Lunch on the Grass (1865)
    • Western Civilization
      • Claude Monet
      Woman with a Parasol (1875)
    • Western Civilization
      • Claude Monet
      Vétheuil in the Fog, 1879
    • Western Civilization
      • Claude Monet
      Camille Monet on her deathbed, 1879
    • Western Civilization
      • Claude Monet
      Charing Cross Bridge, 1899
    • Western Civilization
      • Claude Monet
      Rouen Cathedral, Façade (sunset), 1892–1894
    • Western Civilization
      • Claude Monet
      Bridge over a Pond of Water Lilies, 1899
    • Western Civilization
      • Claude Monet
      Poplars on the Epte, 1900
    • Western Civilization
      • Claude Monet
      The Rose-Way in Giverny, 1920–1922
    • Western Civilization
      • Impressionism
      • Edgar Degas
      • depiction of human isolation
    • Western Civilization
      • Edgar Degas
      A Cotton Office in New Orleans, 1873
    • Western Civilization
      • Edgar Degas
      L'Absinthe, 1876
    • Western Civilization
      • Edgar Degas
      The Amateur, 1866
    • Western Civilization
      • Edgar Degas
      Édouard Manet and Mme. Manet, 1868–1869
    • Western Civilization
      • Post-Impressionism
      • Extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations
      • Thick application of paint
      • Vivid Colors
      • Unnatural Colors
      • Distorted forms for Expressive Effects
    • Western Civilization
      • Post-Impressionism
      • Paul Cézanne
      • Transitional Painter
      • New Directions in the use of Color, Design, Composition, and Tone
      • Combined realism and abstration
    • Western Civilization
      • Paul Cézanne
      The Bathers 1898–1905
    • Western Civilization
      • Paul Cézanne
      Jas de Bouffan, 1885–1887
    • Western Civilization
      • Paul Cézanne
      Pyramid of Skulls 1901
    • Western Civilization
      • Post-Impressionism
      • Paul Gauguin
      • Symbolist – Subject and items in painting were often metaphors
      • Interest in “Primitive” Cultures
    • Western Civilization
      • Paul Gauguin
      Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?
    • Western Civilization
      • Paul Gauguin
      Te aa no areois (The Seed of the Areoi), 1892
    • Western Civilization
      • Paul Gauguin
      Spirit of the Dead Watching 1892
    • Western Civilization
      • Paul Gauguin
      Vision After the Sermon (Jacob wrestling with the angel), (1888)
    • Western Civilization
      • Paul Gauguin
      Self-portrait, 1889
    • Western Civilization
      • Post-Impressionism
      • Vincent van Gogh
      • Dutch Painter
      • Very thick application of paint
      • Vivid Colors
      • Movement of Light
    • Western Civilization
      • Vincent van Gogh
      The Potato Eaters, 1885
    • Western Civilization
      • Vincent van Gogh
      Bedroom in Arles, 1888
    • Western Civilization
      • Vincent van Gogh
      The Night Café, 1888
    • Western Civilization
      • Vincent van Gogh
      The Starry Night, June 1889
    • Western Civilization
      • Vincent van Gogh
      The Church at Auvers, 1890
    • Western Civilization
      • Vincent van Gogh
      Irises, 1889