Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 10
Introduction to Philosophy
Marx’s philosophy owes a great deal to Hegel
Fundamental condition of humanity is the need to convert the raw material of the natural world into the goods necessary for survival
Production (economics) is the primary conditioning factor of life
Marx's Dialectical Materialism Thesis Feudalism Antithesis Industrialism & Creation of Middle Class Synthesis (New Thesis) Industrialist Capitalism Antithesis Proletariat Working-Class Synthesis Socialism
Socialism is the necessary outcome of Capitalism and the Proletariat
Socialism is not necessary for ethical reasons
Socialism is necessary because Marx believes it to be the most efficient means of production and therefore survival
Natural explanation of the origins and decent of biological species
5-year Voyage on HMS Beagle studying/collecting species specimens
Biology based on the philosophies of Schelling and Hegel & Ideal of the Enlightenment
Nature is in a perpetual state of progress
Humans are the highest form of natural progress
Hegel – Dialectic
(Thesis ↔ Antithesis) -> Synthesis
All species of life have descended over time from common ancestry
Transmutation of species – The Process by which one species changes into another species
Survival of the Fittest : Organisms with traits which are better adapted for immediate, local environment survive to pass the trait on.
Darwin's Adaptation of Hegel's Dialectic in Biology (Natural Selection) Thesis - Species Antithesis – Natural Environment Opposing Force Synthesis – New Species better adapted to the natural environment
Female choice of suitable males which impacts what traits get passed on to offspring from the male.
Believed in God as the ultimate natural law giver.
“ I have never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God. – I think that generally ... an agnostic would be the most correct description of my state of mind.”
Implications of Darwinism
Wider Gap between Religion and Science
Origins of man and other species now had a theory that did not need religion
Rise in Scientific Atheism
The Enlightenment & Darwinism
Enlightenment concept of “progress”
Speculated that societies progressed through stages of increasing development – Western logic and science as seen as evidence of more developed cultures
Societies begin as primitive then progress toward industrialized Europe
Darwin's theory was seen as “scientific evidence” of progress
Implications of Darwinism
Herbert Spencer drew parallels between his own economic theories and Darwin's biological ones
Developed a model that applied the law of the survival of the fittest to society
Humanitarian impulses had to be resisted as nothing should be allowed to interfere with nature's laws.
Social Darwinism & Eugenics
Advocates practices to improve the human gene pool.
Used in Western countries to support racist immigration laws and laws against inter-racial marriage.
In severe cases used to advocate genocide.
Advocated the killing of old people because they are no longer productive
Social Darwinism & Industry
Laissez-faire – French: means “let do,” but it broadly implies “let it be,” or “leave it alone.”
Argued against regulations of any industries
Social Darwinists supported Laissez-faire politics as a form of economic “natural selection”
Social Darwinism & Racism
Ethnic races were categorized into higher and lower
Led to ideas of racial supremacy
Used as a justification for slavery
An unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination
Social Darwinists supported imperialism as an example of cultural evolution
Purge forces, ideas, and systems deemed to be the cause of decadence and degeneration
Promote violence and war as actions that create national regeneration
Conflict as a fact of life that is responsible for all human progress.
A form of fascism that incorporated biological racism and antisemitism (against Jews)
Believed in the supremacy of an Aryan Master Race (Germans)
Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)
Father of Psychoanalysis
Believed that certain early childhood experiences, are ‘repressed’ into the Unconscious
Repression often occurs when a child experiences disapproval
Repression is connected to the child’s sexual identity in relation to one or both of its parents
Ego : Realistic, organized aspect of personality. Seeks to satisfy unconscious drives (motives) in realistic ways.
Id : Unconscious, unorganized aspect of personality. Operates from the “pleasure principle” which attempts to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. Comprised of instinctive drives and impulses.
Super-Ego : The moral conscience. Produces the feeling of guilt what a moral conviction has been acted against. A system of internalized social and cultural regulations for behavior.
Carl Jung (1875–1961)
Ego : The conscious mind the individual which makes decisions, learns, and obtains wisdom.
Personal Unconscious : Anything that can be brought to the conscious mind with ease
Collective Unconscious : This part of the psyche is never consciously called upon, but directs a person’s emotional reactions. It is a collection of the religious, spiritual and mythological symbols which are passed down through the generations and therefore pre-date the individual.
Carl Jung (1875–1961)
Inherited aspect of the collective unconscious
Represent collective models which represent deep psychological needs
Example - “Mother” archetype is the person(s) we look to for nurturing, comfort in times of stress.
It an archetype is not fulfilled then a person will seek one out in different ways.
B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Studying Animal Behavior is useful to understanding Human Behavior
Rejects Locke's idea that Humans are born as a blank slate
All organismic action is determined and not free
Austrian Neurologist and Psychiatrist
Founder of Logotherapy
Wrote Man's Search for Meaning
Based on the Greek philosophy term “Logos” (meaning)
Existentialist Analysis of life that focuses on a will to meaning
Finding Meaning (Purpose) to one's life is the primary, most powerful driving force in Humans
Primary motivation of every individual is to find meaning in life
Life has meaning (Logos) even under the most miserable circumstances