Philosophy lecture 10
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Philosophy lecture 10 Philosophy lecture 10 Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 10
  • Introduction to Philosophy
    • Socialism
    • Evolution
    • Social Darwinism
  • Socialism
    • Karl Marx
    • Marx’s philosophy owes a great deal to Hegel
    • Fundamental condition of humanity is the need to convert the raw material of the natural world into the goods necessary for survival
    • Production (economics) is the primary conditioning factor of life
  • Marx's Dialectical Materialism Thesis Feudalism Antithesis Industrialism & Creation of Middle Class Synthesis (New Thesis) Industrialist Capitalism Antithesis Proletariat Working-Class Synthesis Socialism
    • Karl Marx
    • Socialism is the necessary outcome of Capitalism and the Proletariat
    • Socialism is not necessary for ethical reasons
    • Socialism is necessary because Marx believes it to be the most efficient means of production and therefore survival
  • Evolution
    • Charles Darwin
    • English Naturalist
    • Natural explanation of the origins and decent of biological species
    • 5-year Voyage on HMS Beagle studying/collecting species specimens
  • Evolution
    • Charles Darwin
    • Biology based on the philosophies of Schelling and Hegel & Ideal of the Enlightenment
    • Enlightenment Progress
    • Schelling –
      • Nature is in a perpetual state of progress
      • Humans are the highest form of natural progress
    • Hegel – Dialectic
    • (Thesis ↔ Antithesis) -> Synthesis
  • Evolution
    • Darwin's Theory
    • All species of life have descended over time from common ancestry
    • Transmutation of species – The Process by which one species changes into another species
  • Evolution
    • Darwin's Theory
    • Natural Selection
    • Survival of the Fittest : Organisms with traits which are better adapted for immediate, local environment survive to pass the trait on.
  • Darwin's Adaptation of Hegel's Dialectic in Biology (Natural Selection) Thesis - Species Antithesis – Natural Environment Opposing Force Synthesis – New Species better adapted to the natural environment
  • Evolution
    • Darwin's Theory
    • Sexual Selection
    • Female choice of suitable males which impacts what traits get passed on to offspring from the male.
  • Evolution
    • Darwin's Theory
    • God
    • Believed in God as the ultimate natural law giver.
    • “ I have never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God. – I think that generally ... an agnostic would be the most correct description of my state of mind.”
  • Evolution
    • Implications of Darwinism
    • Wider Gap between Religion and Science
    • Origins of man and other species now had a theory that did not need religion
    • Rise in Scientific Atheism
  • Evolution
    • The Enlightenment & Darwinism
    • Enlightenment concept of “progress”
    • Speculated that societies progressed through stages of increasing development – Western logic and science as seen as evidence of more developed cultures
    • Societies begin as primitive then progress toward industrialized Europe
    • Darwin's theory was seen as “scientific evidence” of progress
  • Social Darwinism
    • Implications of Darwinism
    • Herbert Spencer drew parallels between his own economic theories and Darwin's biological ones
    • Developed a model that applied the law of the survival of the fittest to society
    • Humanitarian impulses had to be resisted as nothing should be allowed to interfere with nature's laws.
  • Social Darwinism
    • Social Darwinism & Eugenics
    • Advocates practices to improve the human gene pool.
    • Used in Western countries to support racist immigration laws and laws against inter-racial marriage.
    • In severe cases used to advocate genocide.
    • Advocated the killing of old people because they are no longer productive
  • Social Darwinism
    • Social Darwinism & Industry
    • Laissez-faire – French: means “let do,” but it broadly implies “let it be,” or “leave it alone.”
    • Argued against regulations of any industries
    • Social Darwinists supported Laissez-faire politics as a form of economic “natural selection”
  • Social Darwinism
    • Social Darwinism & Racism
    • Ethnic races were categorized into higher and lower
    • Led to ideas of racial supremacy
    • Used as a justification for slavery
  • Social Darwinism
    • Imperialism
    • An unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination
    • Social Darwinists supported imperialism as an example of cultural evolution
  • Social Darwinism
    • Fascism
      • Purge forces, ideas, and systems deemed to be the cause of decadence and degeneration
      • Promote violence and war as actions that create national regeneration
      • Conflict as a fact of life that is responsible for all human progress.
  • Social Darwinism
    • Nazism
    • A form of fascism that incorporated biological racism and antisemitism (against Jews)
    • Believed in the supremacy of an Aryan Master Race (Germans)
  • Psychology
    • Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)
    • Father of Psychoanalysis
    • Believed that certain early childhood experiences, are ‘repressed’ into the Unconscious
    • Repression often occurs when a child experiences disapproval
    • Repression is connected to the child’s sexual identity in relation to one or both of its parents
  • Psychology
    • Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)
    • Conscious : Awareness, thoughts, perceptions
    • Pre-conscious : Memories, Stored Knowledge
    • Unconscious : Fears, Motives, Desires, Needs, Wishes, Shameful experiences
  • Psychology
    • Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)
    • Ego : Realistic, organized aspect of personality. Seeks to satisfy unconscious drives (motives) in realistic ways.
    • Id : Unconscious, unorganized aspect of personality. Operates from the “pleasure principle” which attempts to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. Comprised of instinctive drives and impulses.
    • Super-Ego : The moral conscience. Produces the feeling of guilt what a moral conviction has been acted against. A system of internalized social and cultural regulations for behavior.
  • Psychology
  • Psychology
    • Carl Jung (1875–1961)
    • Ego : The conscious mind the individual which makes decisions, learns, and obtains wisdom.
    • Personal Unconscious : Anything that can be brought to the conscious mind with ease
    • Collective Unconscious : This part of the psyche is never consciously called upon, but directs a person’s emotional reactions. It is a collection of the religious, spiritual and mythological symbols which are passed down through the generations and therefore pre-date the individual.
  • Psychology
    • Carl Jung (1875–1961)
    • Archetypes :
    • Inherited aspect of the collective unconscious
    • Represent collective models which represent deep psychological needs
    • Example - “Mother” archetype is the person(s) we look to for nurturing, comfort in times of stress.
    • It an archetype is not fulfilled then a person will seek one out in different ways.
  • Psychology
    • B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)
    • Radical Behaviorism
    • Studying Animal Behavior is useful to understanding Human Behavior
    • Rejects Locke's idea that Humans are born as a blank slate
    • All organismic action is determined and not free
  • Psychology
    • Viktor Frankl
    • (1905-1997)
    • Austrian Neurologist and Psychiatrist
    • Holocaust Survivor
    • Founder of Logotherapy
    • Wrote Man's Search for Meaning
  • Psychology
    • Viktor Frankl
    • Logotherapy
    • Based on the Greek philosophy term “Logos” (meaning)
    • Existentialist Analysis of life that focuses on a will to meaning
    • Finding Meaning (Purpose) to one's life is the primary, most powerful driving force in Humans
  • Psychology
    • Viktor Frankl
    • Logotherapy
    • Primary motivation of every individual is to find meaning in life
    • Life has meaning (Logos) even under the most miserable circumstances
    • Motivation for living is to find meaning in life
    • We are free to find meaning in our circumstances