Philosophy lecture 08
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Philosophy lecture 08 Philosophy lecture 08 Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 8
  • Introduction to Philosophy
    • French Revolution
    • Revolutionary Thinkers
    • Idealism - Kant
  • The French Revolution
    • Unrest in France
    • Population Increase
    • Famine
    • Enlightenment ideas that promote democracy and lower prestige of monarchy
    • The Monarchy’s Financial Crisis
    • Feudal Oppression
    • Popular View that the Parliaments and the Public represent the French nation more than the monarch
  • The French Revolution
    • Louis XVI
    • Indecisiveness
    • Financial Crisis
    • Convservativism
    • Lost Respect of French Public
    • Viewed as a King of the Ancient Regime (feudalism)
  • The French Revolution
    • Palace of Versailles
    • King Louis XVI and previous kings didn't live in Paris (capital city of France) but in Versailles
    • A small town near Paris which containted the Royal Palace.
    • Viewed as very extravagant by the French population.
  • The French Revolution
    • Marie Antoinette
    • Archduchess of Austria who married King Louis XVI
    • French public disliked her due to her extravagance in spending money when France was in a financial crisis
    • Also distrusted because she was Austrian
  • The French Revolution
    • Financial Crisis
    • Financial mismangement and the changing economic world in Europe destablized the French economy
    • King Louis XVI brought in a number of financial advisors to review the weakened French treasury.
    • Each advisor reached the same conclusion—that France needed a radical change in the way it taxed the public—and each advisor was, in turn, kicked out.
  • The French Revolution
    • Financial Crisis
    • King Louis XVI finallay agreed that this taxation problem really did need to be addressed
    • He appointed a new controller general of finance, Charles de Calonne, in 1783.
    • Calonne suggested that France begin taxing nobility.
    • The nobility refused during the Assembly of Notables in 1787.
    • Financial ruin thus seemed imminent.
  • The French Revolution
    • The Estates-General
    • Clergy, Nobility and French Public (Third Estate)
    • 1789 - Louis XVI convened the Estates-General to decide on a tax solution for the finanical crisis.
    • The clergy and the nobility were tax-exempt and not willing to be taxed.
    • Outdated rules gave each estate a single vote
  • The French Revolution
    • The Estates-General
    • The Third Estate—consisting of the general French public—was many times larger than either of the first two.
    • The Third Estate declared itself the sovereign National Assembly. Within days of the announcement, many members of the other two estates had switched allegiances over to this revolutionary new assembly.
    • The Revolution Began
  • The French Revolution
    • The Tennis Court Oath
    • The new National Assembly took the Tennis Court Oath, swearing that they would not relent in their efforts until a new constitution had been agreed upon.
  • The French Revolution
    • Louis XVI and Antoinette Forced to Live in Paris
    • Crowds of French women stormed the Royal Palace in Versailles
    • King and Queen forcibly moved to Paris
    • King and Queen were not free to leave Paris
  • The French Revolution
    • The Great Fear
    • Peasants and farmers revolted against their feudal contracts by attacking the manors and estates of their landlords.
    • Rural attacks continued until the issuing of the August Decrees, which freed peasants from their oppressive contracts.
    • The assembly released the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which established a proper judicial code and the autonomy of the French people.
  • The French Revolution
    • Louis XVI Tries to Escape
    • 1791 – Louis XVI tries to flee France and denounces Revolution
    • Louis XVI is caught and brought back to Paris
    • Louis XVI is place under arrest
    • 1792 – Abolished the Monarchy
  • The French Revolution
    • France Becomes a Republic
    • 1792: France becomes a republic, promoting “liberty, equality, and fraternity”
    • Republic takes control of Catholic Church
    • Sans-culottes (“without 'culottes'”) and tricolor (red, white, blue) flag symbolize republican support
  • The French Revolution
    • Europe at War
    • 1792: France wars against anti-revolution European powers
    • War continues sporadically for 23 years, spreading nationalism, democracy, and suffering across the continent
  • The French Revolution
    • Reigh of Terror (1793-1794)
    • Government in hands of a few radicals (Jacobins) led by Maximilien Robespierre
    • Aristocrats and some peasants start counterrevolution
    • Federalists want decentralized revolution; crushed by Jacobins
    • Over 20,000 people guillotined
  • The French Revolution
    • Louis XVI Executed
    • 1792 – Louis XVI charged with high treason
    • 1793 – National Convention finds Louis XVI guilty and sentenced to execution
    • 21 January 1793 Louis XVI was was beheaded by guillotine
  • The French Revolution
    • Marie Antoinette Executed
    • 1793 – Revolutionary Tribunal brings Marie Antoinette to trail
    • No time give to prepare
    • Most of the charges against here were false
    • Declared guilty of treason and was beheaded by guillotine
  • The French Revolution
    • Destablized Revolution
    • Maximilien Robespierre becomes the leader of the National Convention during the Reign of Terror and acts as a dictator
    • 1794 – Robespierre’s regime falls and he is executed
    • Replaced by unstable government called the Directory (lasts until 1799)
  • The French Revolution
    • Napoleon Bonaparte
    • 1799 – General Napolean takes control of French Government
    • Declares himself Emperor in 1804
    • Voltaire (1694–1778)
    • Wrote satirical stories and plays which often criticized political injustice
    • 1726 Imprisoned in the Bastille
    • Released from prison under the condition that he live in exile from France in England
    Revolutionary Thinkers
    • Voltaire (1694–1778)
    • Candide
    • Sharply critical against philosophy, nobility, the church, and cruelty
    • Philosophy: Optimism
    • Attacks the philosophical optimism of Leibniz - “everything is for the best in this best of all possible worlds.”
      • The two optimistic characters (Candide and Pangloss) suffer extreme misfortune
    Revolutionary Thinkers
    • Voltaire (1694–1778)
    • Candide
    • Philosophy: Rationalism
    • One of the most glaring flaws of Pangloss’s optimism is that it is based on abstract philosophical argument rather than real-world evidence.
    • In the story, philosophical rationalism proves to be useless and even destructive to the characters.
    Revolutionary Thinkers
    • Voltaire (1694–1778)
    • Candide
    • Hypocrisy of Catholic Church
    • Religious Characters:
    • Illegitimate daughter of the Pope
    • Catholic Inquisitor who keeps a mistress
    • Franciscan friar who operates as a jewel thief, despite his vow of poverty
    • Jesuit colonel with marked homosexual tendencies
    • Religious leaders carry out religious oppression against those who disagree with them on even the smallest of theological matters.
    Revolutionary Thinkers
    • Denis Diderot (1713-84)
    • Encyclopédie
    • Published in France between 1751 and 1772
    • Denis Diderot was the chief editor
    • Many French Enlightenment thinkers contributed articles including Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu.
    • The largest publication in any language of its time (35 volumes)
    Revolutionary Thinkers
    • Denis Diderot (1713-84)
    • Encyclopédie
    • Heavily influenced by the philosophies of Voltaire, Bacon, Newton and John Locke
    • Anti-Authority
      • Denied that religious teaching was a valid source of knowledge of the world
      • Denied intellectual authority of the Catholic Church and the Bible
      • Denied the intellectual authority of political powers
    Revolutionary Thinkers
    • Jean-Jacqyes Rousseau (1712-78)
    • French Philosophy who was not French but Swiss
    • Forerunner of the Romantic Movement
    • Opposed many of the values of Enlightenment philosophy
    • Anti-Rationalist
    Revolutionary Thinkers
    • Jean-Jacqyes Rousseau (1712-78)
    • “ Civilization ” is not a good thing – it is positively evil
    • Reason is not a trustworthy guide in life
    • Emotions and Natural Instincts are trustworthy since they come from our nature which is basically good
    • Rousseau's appeal to emotions is an idea later embraced by the Romantics
    Revolutionary Thinkers
    • Jean-Jacqyes Rousseau (1712-78)
    • The Noble Savage
    • Humans are born good, but are corrupted by growing up in “civilized” society
    • Argued that most of European culture was not civilized because rationalism denied suppressed natural emotions
    • “ Primitive” cultures were more civilized because they are more open to emotion and closer to nature
    Revolutionary Thinkers
    • Jean-Jacqyes Rousseau (1712-78)
    • The Social Contract
    • Human societies have a collective will which is different from the wills of the individuals
    • Legislators, representing the people, should develop laws based on the general (collective) will of the people
    • These laws must be binding for everyone in that society
    • Personal Freedom (Liberty) is sacrificed to the general will expressed in law
    Revolutionary Thinkers
    • Places importance on the ideal or spiritual realm in its account of human existence
    • Metaphysical idealism is an ontology that holds that reality itself is essentially spirit or consciousness or, at least, that abstractions and laws are more basic to reality than the things we perceive
    • Epistemological idealism is the view that reality can only be known through ideas, that only psychological experience can be apprehended by the mind.
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Set out to answer 2 questions:
    • (1) What can I know?
    • (2) How can I know it?
    • As a rationalist, Descartes set out to answer these questions by means of reason alone.
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Every Apparatus has its Limitations
      • You can't make tea with a camera
      • You can't take a picture with a tea kettle
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Tea Kettles
      • Boil water or other fluids
      • Storage of liquids
    • Cameras
      • Photos
      • Videos
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Each of our human faculties also have limitations
      • I can see with my eyes, but I can't taste with my eyes
      • I can taste with my tongue, but I can hear music with it.
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Our minds also has limits in what it can perceive and know
      • We can use our minds to interpret data received by our senses
      • We can use our minds to apprehend order and structure in reality
      • Our minds cannot apprehend possible aspects of reality exist outside of space and time
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Limitations of Human Knowledge
    • Reality is the sum total of everything that exists
    • Reality is made up of things that your human apparatus can perceive and things we cannot perceive
    • Human knowledge of reality will be less than the sum total of reality – there are things in reality which we cannot know
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Representation vs. Reality
    • Photos are not the same as the thing being photographed
    • A photo is only a representation of the real thing
    • A sound recording is another type of representation of the same thing from a different perspective
    • BUT the representation is not the reality
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Representation vs. Reality
    • Objects in Reality are completely separated things than their representations.
    • A picture of an elephant is not an elephant. A picture of an elephant is only a piece of paper with an image on it ( or in our case and arrangement of colored light pixels projected on a screen ).
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Perception vs. Reality
    • Sensory perception feeds our mind with subject-dependent data (sights, sounds, smells...)
    • Just as a picture ( or any other representation) is not that same as the real thing, So also our perceptions are not the same as the real thing
    • Our perceptions are filtered by our senses and our rational functions
    • It's like a set of colored glasses we can never take off
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Perception vs. Reality
    • We cannot apprehend reality beyond what our human faculties allow us
    • BUT, we cannot assume that our perception of reality is the same as reality
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Noumena - Phenomena
    • Phenomena – The reality of things as they “appear” to us through our human abilities to perceive (filtered reality).
    • Noumena – The reality of things as they are in themselves apart from our perceptions (unfiltered reality)
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Noumena - Phenomena
    • Phenomenal World – Subject to the laws of science. The only world accessible to us.
    • Noumenal World – Not accessible through reason or science.
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • The Problem of Freewill
    • Determinism rules the phenomenal world which is governed by the laws of science.
    • Freewill exists in the numenal world which is not governed by the laws of science and reason and therefore not determined by them.
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Ethics
    • Everyone has moral concepts about good, right, just...
    • Everyone has moral convictions about what is good, right, just...
    • Nobody is able to completely disregard our moral convictions all the time.
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Ethics
    • Freewill is necessary for ethics
    • Everyone “practically” operates from freewill when they experience moral situations
    • Even those who claim to believe in determinism object to being treated unjustly
    • Ex. Everyone feels sad and angry when they are robbed and beaten.
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • God???
    • “ It is thoroughly necessary to be convicted of God's existence, it is not quite so necessary that one should demonstrate it”
    • God transcends the phenomenal world, therefore we cannot prove God's existence through science or reason.
    Idealism
    • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
    • Moral Argument for God's Existence
    • Moral behavior is rational
      • If you ought to act morally the you must have a reason for acting morally
    • Morality is only rational if ultimate Justice is a reality
    • Ultimate Justice can only happened if God exists
    • Therefore, God must exist if we want to claim that morality is real and rational
    • God's existence is a practical necessity not a rational necessity.
    Idealism