Philosophy lecture 07


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Philosophy lecture 07

  1. 1. Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 7
  2. 2. Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>The Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Rediscovery of Ancient Greek Philosophy </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  4. 4. <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition to Church Corruption and Abuse of Power </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Religious Violence </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  5. 5. <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Copernican Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon's Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Newton's Natural Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in technology and medicine </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  6. 6. <ul><li>Enlightenment Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Superiority of Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Superiority of Scientific Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition to Abuses </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom, Equality and Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism - Individual Rights and Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Relativism </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  7. 7. <ul><li>Rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to Reason as the most accurate source of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Perception cannot be trusted </li></ul><ul><li>Truth is established through the intellect by means of deductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Reason is established as the primary source of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism </li></ul><ul><li>There is no rational reason why reason should be considered a valid form of knowledge </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  8. 8. <ul><li>Rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition is a valid form of rational insight. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intuition is knowledge that is immediate to us. It doesn't require reasoning or sensory experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Priori knowledge – Knowledge gained without the use sensory experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Innate Knowledge – Knowledge that we are born with. This knowledge is not learned by deductive reasoning, sensory experience or intuition. It is knowledge that is part of our nature as humans. </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  9. 9. <ul><li>René Descartes (1596–1650) </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalist </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that knowledge eternal truth could only be attained by reason alone </li></ul><ul><li>Eternal Truths include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophical foundations of science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other areas of knowledge such as physics require sensory experience aided by the scientific method </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  10. 10. <ul><li>René Descartes (1596–1650) </li></ul><ul><li>Set out to answer 2 questions: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) What can I know? </li></ul><ul><li>(2) How can I know it? </li></ul><ul><li>As a rationalist, Descartes set out to answer these questions by means of reason alone. </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  11. 11. <ul><li>René Descartes (1596–1650) </li></ul><ul><li>Doubt (Skepticism) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory experience can sometimes be deceptive. Therefore, it must be doubted. </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness can also be an illusion. When we dream we believe that we are conscious. </li></ul><ul><li>Since sensory experience and consciousness are open to error all beliefs about reality should be doubted. </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  12. 12. <ul><li>René Descartes (1596–1650) </li></ul><ul><li>Method of Attaining Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Establish truths which cannot be gained through sensory experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish truth which do not rely on consciousness of the world outside yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish truth though a deductive process of reasoning. </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  13. 13. <ul><li>René Descartes (1596–1650) </li></ul><ul><li>Cogito Ergo Sum </li></ul><ul><li>I can doubt nature because it relies on sensory experience. </li></ul><ul><li>I can doubt the existence of other people because it relies on consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Can I doubt my own existence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to doubt my own existence, I must first exist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I don't exist then I cannot think about doubting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I doubt, therefore I think, therefore I exist. </li></ul></ul>The Enlightenment
  14. 14. <ul><li>René Descartes (1596–1650) </li></ul><ul><li>Cogito Ergo Sum </li></ul><ul><li>Problem : Only proves the existence of your own mind but not your body or the external world. </li></ul><ul><li>If I exist, then it is possible that other things exist as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory experience is something I do involuntary – I experience things without trying to using my reason to sense things. Therefore, I must be sensing something. </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  15. 15. <ul><li>René Descartes (1596–1650) </li></ul><ul><li>Cogito Ergo Sum </li></ul><ul><li>Problem : Only proves the existence of your own mind but not your body or the external world. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps an evil spirit is deceiving my sensory experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Descartes employs Anselm's ontological argument to prove the existence of a good God who does not deceive. </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  16. 16. <ul><li>René Descartes (1596–1650) </li></ul><ul><li>Dualism </li></ul><ul><li>Body – Physical </li></ul><ul><li>works like a machine </li></ul><ul><li>has the material properties of extension and motion </li></ul><ul><li>it follows the laws of nature </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  17. 17. <ul><li>René Descartes (1596–1650) </li></ul><ul><li>Dualism </li></ul><ul><li>Mind – Non-physical </li></ul><ul><li>nonmaterial entity </li></ul><ul><li>lacks extension and motion, </li></ul><ul><li>does not follow the laws of nature </li></ul><ul><li>only humans have minds </li></ul><ul><li>the mind interacts with the body at the pineal gland </li></ul><ul><li>The pineal gland is the “seat of the soul” </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  18. 18. <ul><li>Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677) </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish philosopher from Amsterdam </li></ul><ul><li>Spinoza called into question the tenets of both Judaism and Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in God but denied that the Bible was divinely inspired and rejected the concept of miracles and the religious supernatural </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed that ethics determined by rational thought were more important as a guide to conduct than was religion </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  19. 19. <ul><li>Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677) </li></ul><ul><li>Everything that exists in Nature is one Reality (substance) </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one set of rules governing the whole of the reality which surrounds us and of which we are part. </li></ul><ul><li>God and Nature as two names for the same reality </li></ul><ul><li>God is the single substance that is the basis of the universe and of which all lesser &quot;entities&quot; are actually modes or modifications. </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  20. 20. <ul><li>Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677) </li></ul><ul><li>The mind and the body are aspects of the same reality. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no problem in Spinoza's metaphysics describing how the mind and body are connected since the mind and body are essentially the same thing. </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  21. 21. <ul><li>Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz </li></ul><ul><li>Influential mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>Invented calculus independent of Isaac Newton. </li></ul><ul><li>Separated truth into 2 categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic Statements - Truths which require empirical verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical Statements - Truths which do not require empirical investigation </li></ul></ul>The Enlightenment
  22. 22. <ul><li>Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic Statement : </li></ul><ul><li>My neighbor next door is a very tall man with a very short wife. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to prove this statement, I need to verify it empirically </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  23. 23. <ul><li>Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Statement : </li></ul><ul><li>My neighbor next door is a very tall bachelor with a very short wife. </li></ul><ul><li>This statement can be proven false without the need of empirical verification because it is a logical contradiction (i.e. bachelors do not have wives) </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  24. 24. <ul><li>Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient Reason : </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Statements – Can be proved true without reference to external reality through logic or math </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic Statements – Must show the empirical cause of the statement. </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  25. 25. <ul><li>Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz </li></ul><ul><li>Theodicy </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to deal with the problem of evil </li></ul><ul><li>God could have created a number of possible worlds including a world without evil </li></ul><ul><li>The world God chose to create (which includes evil) is the best possible world He could have created </li></ul><ul><li>Optimistic view of the world </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  26. 26. <ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge comes only or primarily through sensory experience </li></ul><ul><li>Questions or even rejects the idea of a priori knowledge or innate knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory perception can be deceived – dreams </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory perception can be in error – misjudgement </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  27. 27. <ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>British empiricist </li></ul><ul><li>All people were equal and independent, and everyone had a natural right to defend his “Life, health, Liberty, or Possessions&quot; </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  28. 28. <ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>The mind was a blank slate </li></ul><ul><li>We are born without innate ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is instead determined ONLY by experience derived from sense perception </li></ul><ul><li>Complete rejection of a priori or innate knowledge </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  29. 29. <ul><li>David Hume (1711–1776) </li></ul><ul><li>Skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested that our own senses are fallible, bringing all observations and truths into question. </li></ul><ul><li>Very influential to others, such as Immanuel Kant, and was instrumental in the shift away from rationalist thought that ended the Enlightenment. </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  30. 30. <ul><li>David Hume (1711–1776) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of Induction </li></ul><ul><li>We believe that we can make inductive inferences from our observations </li></ul><ul><li>Induction relies on the belief that the pattern we notice when observing something are real pattens </li></ul><ul><li>There is no way to be certain that an observed pattern will continue to occur when unobserved </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  31. 31. <ul><li>David Hume (1711–1776) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul><ul><li>We observe a sequence of events and attribute cause and effect to those events simply because one followed the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet there is no logical reason for this assumption. </li></ul><ul><li>If one event precedes another it does not necessarily make it the cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Billiards Illustration </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  32. 32. <ul><li>George Berkeley (1685-1753) </li></ul><ul><li>Immaterialism </li></ul><ul><li>This theory denies the existence of material substance and instead contends that familiar objects like tables and chairs are only ideas in the minds of perceivers, and as a result cannot exist without being perceived </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  33. 33. <ul><li>George Berkeley (1685-1753) </li></ul><ul><li>Immaterialism </li></ul><ul><li>“ To be is to be perceived” </li></ul><ul><li>There is no existence without perception </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme empiricism </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  34. 34. <ul><li>George Berkeley (1685-1753) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of Immaterialism: </li></ul><ul><li>If a tree falls in a forest with no one to perceive it does it make a sound? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the forest even exist if no one perceives it? </li></ul>The Enlightenment
  35. 35. <ul><li>George Berkeley (1685-1753) </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>God is also capable of perception. </li></ul><ul><li>God is always perceiving the external world. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the world doesn't cease to exist when we sleep because God continues to perceive it. </li></ul>The Enlightenment