Philosophy Lecture 06


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Philosophy Lecture 06

  1. 1. Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 6
  2. 2. Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Copernicus, Galileo and Isaac Newton </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Machiavelli </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>Renaissance = Rebirth </li></ul>School of Athens, Raphael 1510
  4. 4. Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>Rebirth of Ancient Greeks and Romans </li></ul>School of Athens, Raphael 1510 Plato Aristotle Socrates Alexander the Great Pythagoras Heraclitus Raphael Zeno of Citium Epicurus Diogenes Boethius Paramenides
  5. 5. Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>Rebirth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rediscovery of the Greeks and Romans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art, Literature, Science, Philosophy..., </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction to Philosophy Changes that led to the Renaissance <ul><li>Crusaders brought back knowledge of the ancient arts, sciences and philosophy that had been preserved by the Islamic Golden Age </li></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction to Philosophy Changes that led to the Renaissance <ul><li>1100 AD – Paper manufacture began in Spain </li></ul>
  8. 8. Introduction to Philosophy Changes that led to the Renaissance <ul><li>1450 AD – Gutenberg's Printing Press </li></ul>1455 AD – Gutenberg Bible 1 st Major Book Printed
  9. 9. Introduction to Philosophy Changes that led to the Renaissance <ul><li>1304-1374 AD – Petrarch </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Writing focused on this world not heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote in Italian vernacular (common language) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Introduction to Philosophy Changes that led to the Renaissance <ul><li>1215 AD – The Magna Carta </li></ul><ul><li>Required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Stated that the king's will was not arbitrary (limited the power of the king) </li></ul><ul><li>No &quot;freeman&quot; (in the sense of non-serf) could be punished except through the law of the land, a right which is still in existence today </li></ul>
  11. 11. Introduction to Philosophy Changes that led to the Renaissance <ul><li>Scientific Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Copernicus and Galileo </li></ul><ul><li>The Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Empirical Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle's Logic </li></ul>
  12. 12. Introduction to Philosophy Changes that led to the Renaissance <ul><li>Religious Authority Questioned </li></ul><ul><li>Abusive Authority of the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Papal Authority and Abuses </li></ul><ul><li>Nepotism </li></ul>Pope Alexander VI
  13. 13. Introduction to Philosophy Key Themes & Ideas of the Renaissance: Focus on this World Early Medieval Painting of the Death of Christ High Renaissance Painting of the Death of Christ 1507 by Raphael
  14. 14. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>Formulated a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the philosophical implications of this idea? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>Observation with medieval technology seemed to contradict Copernicus' model </li></ul><ul><li>Copernicus relied on mathematics to prove his model </li></ul>
  16. 16. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Medieval Cosmology </li></ul><ul><li>Ptolemaic – Earth is at the center of the universe and does not move (Geocentric Cosmology) </li></ul><ul><li>Official Teaching of the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible “seemed” to Support the Geocentric Cosmology </li></ul>
  17. 17. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Psalm 93 </li></ul><ul><li>The LORD reigns; he is robed in majesty; </li></ul><ul><li>the LORD is robed; he has put on strength as his belt. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, the world is established; it shall never be moved . </li></ul><ul><li>Your throne is established from of old; you are from everlasting. </li></ul><ul><li>The floods have lifted up, O LORD, </li></ul><ul><li>the floods have lifted up their voice; </li></ul><ul><li>the floods lift up their roaring. </li></ul><ul><li>Mightier than the thunders of many waters, </li></ul><ul><li>mightier than the waves of the sea, </li></ul><ul><li>the LORD on high is mighty! </li></ul><ul><li>Your decrees are very trustworthy; </li></ul><ul><li>holiness befits your house, </li></ul><ul><li>O LORD, forevermore. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>No Real Contradiction with the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>The word used for “world” or “earth” in Psalm 93 can also be translated “cosmos” or “universe”. </li></ul><ul><li>Psalm 93 is a poem/song – The intention is not to teach cosmology </li></ul><ul><li>As a poem it employ metaphor which should not be take literally - “the floods have lifted up their voice” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>Copernicus dedicated his book on the heliocentric model to the Pope </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church declared Copernicus' model “heresy” and banned its teaching </li></ul>
  20. 20. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Galileo </li></ul><ul><li>Studied Copernicus' Heliocentric Model </li></ul><ul><li>Developed more accurate telescopes to test Copernicus' calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo proved Copernicus by Empirical Observation </li></ul>
  21. 21. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Galileo </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo was brought to an inquisition (religious court trial) after he published his work confirming the Copernican Cosmology </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo attempted to convince the Church leadership by Copernicus' calculations and his own Empirical Observations </li></ul>
  22. 22. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Galileo </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo's conclusions were rejected by the Catholic Church and condemned as Heresy </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo was forced to recant his publication </li></ul><ul><li>Heresy – a belief that is contrary to official religious teachings </li></ul><ul><li>Recant – to say you no longer hold a belief you once held </li></ul>
  23. 23. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Galileo's Significance for Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo validates Copernicus' rational approach by submitting it to Empirical Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Employed both Deductive and Inductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations of the Scientific Method </li></ul>
  24. 24. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Francis Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized value of scientific work like that of Galileo </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to construct method of inquiry for the sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalism and Empiricism both had strengths and weaknesses </li></ul>
  25. 25. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Francis Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Realized the power of combining the strengths of Rationalism and Empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>This combination became know as Bacon's Scientific Method </li></ul>
  26. 26. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Bacon's Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1 - Empirical Observation of Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Large quantity of observations – the more the better </li></ul><ul><li>Observations should be made by more than one person to increase objectivity </li></ul>
  27. 27. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Bacon's Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 – Note Patterns and Regularity from the Data </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful not to impose patterns or regularity on the data – Let the “facts” speak for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to identify potential “Laws of Nature” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Bacon's Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3 – Formulate a Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to make sure that your hypothesis has not already been proven invalid by your pervious observations </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate a Hypothesis which can be submitted to experimentation </li></ul>
  29. 29. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Bacon's Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4 – Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple and Varied experiments are crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments attempt to DISPROVE your hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>However, if your hypothesis is disproved by experimentation you still have gained vital knowledge </li></ul>
  30. 30. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Bacon's Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4 – Law of Nature </li></ul><ul><li>If experimentation support the hypothesis, you have discovered a Law of Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Laws of Nature are useful in accurately predicting all similar circumstances in nature </li></ul>
  31. 31. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Isaac Newton (1642–1727) </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted experiments in physics and math that revealed a number of natural laws that had previously been credited to divine forces </li></ul><ul><li>Principia Mathematica (1687) </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Force of Gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Established 3 Laws of Motion </li></ul>
  32. 32. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Isaac Newton (1642–1727) </li></ul><ul><li>Newton's Laws of motion were foundational to the development of technology and the industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Helped to establish Scientific Knowledge as the “Supreme” Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>All of Reality was Subject to Natural Laws </li></ul>
  33. 33. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Newton's Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Deism – God set the world in motion and establish Natural Laws, but is no longer involved in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Determinism – If all reality is determined by Natural Laws Freewill cannot exist </li></ul>
  34. 34. Nicolo Machiavelli <ul><li>The Prince </li></ul><ul><li>Political Treatise </li></ul><ul><li>Written in the Vernacular (Italian) rather than Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Describing Human means of Power not Divine </li></ul><ul><li>Major Theme: Appearances vs. Reality </li></ul>
  35. 35. Nicolo Machiavelli <ul><li>The Prince </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of a Prince </li></ul><ul><li>A Perceived “Good” Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Not Overly Generous </li></ul><ul><li>Better to be Feared than Loved </li></ul><ul><li>It's not important to keep your word, only to appear to keep your word </li></ul>
  36. 36. Nicolo Machiavelli <ul><li>The Prince </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>The Ends Justify the Means </li></ul><ul><li>Virtues are Characteristics Praised by other People – A prince only need to appear Virtuous </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Virtue – Act swiftly with necessary evil at the beginning of power as people will forget after time </li></ul>