Philosophy Lecture 04


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Philosophy Lecture 04

  1. 1. Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 4
  2. 2. Introduction to Philosophy <ul><li>Epicureanism </li></ul><ul><li>Stoicism </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stoicism <ul><li>Zeno of Citium (Cyprus) – Founder of Stoicism </li></ul><ul><li>Many Roman Emperors Claimed to be Stoics – Most Famous: Marcus Aurelius </li></ul><ul><li>Often called the Official Philosophy of Rome </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stoicism <ul><li>Extreme Rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is the all there is to Reality </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is governed by Rational Principles (Logos) </li></ul><ul><li>God is not outside the world, but fill the world and is the “mind” of the world </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stoicism <ul><li>Extreme Rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Total Rejection of Plato's Metaphysic </li></ul><ul><li>There is no realm outside of Nature </li></ul><ul><li>After Death we are absorbed back into Nature – There is NO Life After Death! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stoicism <ul><li>Extreme Rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Since Nature is Rational, there is a Rational Reason for Everything </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, we should not seek to Change anything </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stoicism <ul><li>Emotions vs. Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Reason and Emotions are Opposed to Each other </li></ul><ul><li>Our Reason follows Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions are Contrary to Nature because they are not Governed by Reason </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stoicism <ul><li>Emotions vs. Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions come from our DESIRES to avoid pain or obtain pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>“ Apathea” - Separating oneself from all desires </li></ul><ul><li>Complete indifference to both pain and pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>If you can avoid desiring anything you will also avoid emotions </li></ul>
  9. 9. Epicureanism <ul><li>Epicurus – Founder </li></ul><ul><li>Epicurean Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>Atomist like Democritus </li></ul><ul><li>The Universe consist of Atoms and Space – Nothing else has existence </li></ul><ul><li>The Universe (collection of atoms) is Eternal and Indestructible </li></ul><ul><li>Change is simply reorganization of atoms </li></ul>
  10. 10. Epicureanism <ul><li>Epicurean Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>DEATH – When the atoms that make up your body disperse (move apart) </li></ul><ul><li>At Death the person ceases to exist </li></ul><ul><li>Death = Non-existence </li></ul><ul><li>Like the Stoics, Epicureans believed that there is no life after death </li></ul><ul><li>“ Death is NOTHING to us” - Epicurus </li></ul>
  11. 11. Epicureanism <ul><li>Epicurean Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Since Death is non-existence, we should make the most of life – Enjoy life while you can! </li></ul><ul><li>The Good in life is Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness is the goal of Epicurean ethics </li></ul>
  12. 12. Epicureanism <ul><li>Epicurean Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraw from society into a private community of Epicureans </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy Pleasure in Moderation – NOT Hedonism </li></ul><ul><li>Don't Enjoy pleasure that can harm you or other people </li></ul>
  13. 13. Christianity <ul><li>Jewish Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>God (Genesis 1) </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the Beginning, God created the heavens and the earth” </li></ul><ul><li>God is One – Monotheism </li></ul><ul><li>God is Eternal </li></ul><ul><li>God is Creator of the Cosmos </li></ul><ul><li>God is Involved in the World </li></ul><ul><li>God is not part of the World </li></ul>
  14. 14. Christianity <ul><li>Jewish Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>God (Genesis 1) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The earth was formless and void...And God said, 'Let there be...” </li></ul><ul><li>God creates Ex Nihilo </li></ul><ul><li>(out of nothing) </li></ul><ul><li>God creates by Verbal Fiat (God's words are the instruments of creation) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Christianity <ul><li>Jewish Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>God (Genesis 1) </li></ul><ul><li>“ And God saw that it was Good.” </li></ul><ul><li>God is the origin of Good </li></ul>
  16. 16. Christianity <ul><li>Jewish Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Humans (Genesis 1-2) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let us make humans in our image” </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are Created in God's Image </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of Human Dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Reason that Murder is Wrong </li></ul>
  17. 17. Christianity <ul><li>Jewish Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Humans (Genesis 1-2) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Be fruitful...fill the earth...Rule over the earth” </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are created for a purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose #1 – Fill the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose #2 – Take care of Creation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Christianity <ul><li>Jewish Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Humans (Genesis 2:16-17) </li></ul><ul><li>“ And the LORD God commanded the man, ' You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; 17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat of it you will surely die.'” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Christianity <ul><li>Jewish Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Humans (Genesis 2:16-17) </li></ul><ul><li>Humans Created with Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Human Freedom has boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are Accountable to God </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics – Knowledge of Good and Evil is determined by God not Humans </li></ul>
  20. 20. Christianity <ul><li>Jewish Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of Evil (Genesis 3:1-7) </li></ul><ul><li>Now the serpent was more crafty than any of the wild animals the LORD God had made. He said to the woman, “Did God really say, ‘You must not eat from any tree in the garden’?” </li></ul><ul><li>The woman said to the serpent, “We may eat fruit from the trees in the garden, but God did say, ‘You must not eat fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden, and you must not touch it, or you will die.’ ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ You will not surely die,” the serpent said to the woman. “For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” </li></ul><ul><li>When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it. She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it. Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Christianity <ul><li>Jewish Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of Evil (Genesis 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Evil is not from God, therefore not part of Creation </li></ul><ul><li>Evil is Disbelief and Disobedience to God </li></ul><ul><li>Evil is Self-centered </li></ul>
  22. 22. Christianity <ul><li>Jewish Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of Evil (Genesis 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Evil is not from God, therefore not part of Creation </li></ul><ul><li>Evil is Disbelief and Disobedience to God </li></ul><ul><li>Evil is Self-centered </li></ul>
  23. 23. Christianity <ul><li>Jewish Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences of Evil </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>Shame </li></ul><ul><li>Relational Brokenness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God – Humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human – Human </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish Rabbi (teacher) </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed to be a Deity </li></ul><ul><li>Crucified under Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate </li></ul><ul><li>His Followers Claimed He Bodily Resurrected after 3 Days in the Grave </li></ul>
  25. 25. Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption of the Soul </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nothing outside a man can make him ‘unclean’ by going into him. Rather, it is what comes out of a man that makes him ‘unclean...’ For from within, out of men’s hearts, come evil thoughts, sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery, greed, malice, deceit, lewdness, envy, slander, arrogance and folly. All these evils come from inside and make a man ‘unclean.’” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics is an Internal Issue not merely a concern with outward behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical living requires a transformation of a person from the inside out </li></ul>
  27. 27. Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>The Root of Murder is Hatred and Anger </li></ul><ul><li>“ You have heard that it was said to the people long ago, ‘Do not murder, and anyone who murders will be subject to judgment.’ But I tell you that anyone who is angry with his brother will be subject to judgment.” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>The Root of Adultery is Lust </li></ul><ul><li>“ You have heard that it was said, ‘Do not commit adultery.’ But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart” </li></ul>
  29. 29. Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Devotion is Internal not External </li></ul><ul><li>“ And when you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and on the street corners to be seen by men. I tell you the truth, they have received their reward in full. But when you pray, go into your room, close the door and pray to your Father, who is unseen.” </li></ul>
  30. 30. Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Examination </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do not judge, or you too will be judged...Why do you look at the speck of dust in your brother’s eye and pay no attention to the log in your own eye? How can you say to your brother, ‘Let me take the speck out of your eye,’ when all the time there is a log in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the plank out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye.” </li></ul>
  31. 31. Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Violence </li></ul><ul><li>“ If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also...You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you.” </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Plato and Socrates – It is better to suffer wrongs that to commit wrogs. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Standard compared to God not other people. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Be perfect , therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect.” </li></ul>
  33. 33. Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics </li></ul><ul><li>The Kingdom of God/Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Taught through a series of Parables (short illustrative stories) </li></ul><ul><li>Not a “spiritual” realm separated from the “physical” realm </li></ul><ul><li>The Kingdom is both physical and spiritual </li></ul><ul><li>The Kingdom will eventually overtake the current reality purging it of all evil </li></ul>
  34. 34. Christianity <ul><li>The Apostle John </li></ul><ul><li>Logos </li></ul><ul><li>In the beginning was the Logos , and the Logos was with God, and the Logos was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made...The Logos became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Christianity <ul><li>The Apostle John </li></ul><ul><li>Logos </li></ul><ul><li>Logos is Eternal </li></ul><ul><li>Logos is God </li></ul><ul><li>Logos is the Creator of the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>The Logos became a Human (Jesus of Nazareth) </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus/The Logos reveals God to Humanity </li></ul>
  36. 36. Christianity <ul><li>The Apostle John </li></ul><ul><li>Logos </li></ul><ul><li>John's Gospel (narrative about Jesus) records 7 miracles that Jesus performed </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Miracles according to John was to provide evidence for faith in Jesus' Divinity </li></ul>
  37. 37. Christianity <ul><li>The Apostle John </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics – Love Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Devotion is measured by Love for other people </li></ul><ul><li>“ Anyone who claims to be in the light but hates his brother is still in the darkness... Whoever hates his brother is in the darkness and walks around in the darkness; he does not know where he is going, because the darkness has blinded him.” </li></ul>
  38. 38. Christianity <ul><li>The Apostle Paul </li></ul><ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><li>“ The God who made the world and everything in it...does not live in temples built by hands. And he is not served by human hands, as if he needed anything, because he himself gives all men life and breath and everything else...‘For in him we live and move and have our being...’ We should not think that the divine being is like gold or silver or stone—an image made by man’s design and skill.” </li></ul>
  39. 39. Christianity <ul><li>The Apostle Paul </li></ul><ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><li>God does not live in Temples </li></ul><ul><li>God does not need people to serve Him – He is self-sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>We have our being in God </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from God we cannot have existence </li></ul>
  40. 40. Christianity <ul><li>The Apostle Paul </li></ul><ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is Evidence of God's Existence </li></ul><ul><li>“ Since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse.” </li></ul>
  41. 41. Christianity <ul><li>The Apostle Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone is Morally Corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is no one righteous, not even one” </li></ul><ul><li>“ there is no one who does good, not even one.” </li></ul>
  42. 42. Christianity <ul><li>The Apostle Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>There is in Internal Struggle Against Evil </li></ul><ul><li>I do not understand what I do. For what I want to do I do not do, but what I hate I do...I know that nothing good lives in me, that is, in my sinful nature. For I have the desire to do what is good, but I cannot carry it out. For what I do is not the good I want to do; no, the evil I do not want to do—this I keep on doing... So I find this law at work: When I want to do good, evil is right there with me...What a wretched man I am! Who will rescue me from this body of death? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Christianity <ul><li>The Apostle Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Rituals cannot Remove Evil </li></ul><ul><li>“ A man is not a Jew if he is only one outwardly...No, a man is a Jew if he is one inwardly” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Those sacrifices are an annual reminder of sins, because it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.” </li></ul>
  44. 44. Christianity <ul><li>The Apostle Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of Evil happens only by being Transformed by God </li></ul><ul><li>“ Therefore, I urge you, brothers, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God—this is your spiritual act of worship. Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. ” </li></ul>