Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Philosophy lecture 03
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Philosophy lecture 03

  • 1,383 views
Published

 

Published in Education , Spiritual
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • thanks u so much!!!
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,383
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
137
Comments
1
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • What is this? Did this bridge appear by chance? Could this bridge come into existence given billions of years? Is this evidence of a designer? Why?
  • What is this? Did this bridge appear by chance? Could this bridge come into existence given billions of years? Is this evidence of a designer? Why?

Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 3
  • 2. Socrates
    • No Writings
    • What we know of Socrates comes from the writings of others such as Plato and Xenophon.
    • A Native of Athens, Greece
  • 3. Socrates Oracle of Delphi
    • Priestess of Apollo gifted in prophecy
    • She was asked, “Is there anyone wiser than Socrates?” She answered no.
    • Socrates felt this we wrong because he knew that he didn't know anything.
    • Socrates tried to refute the Oracle by questioning the Wise Men of Athens.
  • 4. Socrates Oracle of Delphi
    • Socrates learned that the men who “claimed” to be wise really knew very little but were ignorant about their lack of knowledge.
    • Though Socrates knew very little he was aware of his ignorance and was therefore wiser.
    • Socrates' paradoxical wisdom comes from realizing his own lack of knowledge.
  • 5. Socrates Trial and Death
    • Socrates public questioning of Athen's elite caused those in power to look foolish.
    • Social and Moral critic of Athens.
    • Criticized the common notion that “might is right” in Athens.
    • Accused of corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods of the state.
    • Sentenced to drink poison hemlock.
  • 6. Socrates The Socratic Method
    • What is Justice?
  • 7. Socrates The Socratic Method
    • What is Love?
  • 8. Socrates The Socratic Method
    • DIALECTIC: A method of seeking truth through a series of questions and answers.
    • The Socratic method is a “dialectic” method teaching.
    • To solve a problem, it is broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek.
  • 9. Socrates
    • Ethics
    • Socrates' primary concern in philosophy was, “How should we live?”
    • 3 Questions
    • What is good?
    • What is right?
    • What is just (justice)?
  • 10. Socrates
    • Ethics
    • Socrates' ethics assumes that Education is the key to living an ethical life.
    • No one desires evil.
    • No one errs or does wrong willingly or knowingly.
    • Virtue—all virtue—is knowledge.
    • Virtue = positive moral behavior
  • 11. Socrates
    • Ethics
    • The worst thing for a person is the corruption of his/her soul.
    • It is better to suffer injustice than to commit injustice.
  • 12. Socrates
    • Metaphysics
    • Common Properties universal characteristics of words (meanings)
    • Example:
    • Behind the word “justice” is a common property about justice that has an existence apart from our understanding.
    “ Justice”
  • 13. Socrates
    • Metaphysics
    • Common Properties
    • Universal characteristics of words (meanings)
    • An aspect of reality
    • Non-physical (abstract)
    “ Justice”
  • 14. Plato
    • Socrates' Student
    • Founded the Academy –
    • First institution for higher education
    • First Western philosopher whose writings have survived
    • Most of what we know about Socrates comes from Plato's writings
    • Agreed with Pythagoras that Mathematics were essential in understanding the world
  • 15. Plato
    • Ethics
    • Agreed with Socrates that the only real harm to a human is corruption of the soul – it is better to suffer wrong than to commit wrong
    • Disagreed with Socrates that virtue is simply a matter of knowing what is right
  • 16. Plato
    • Ethics
    • Humans are made of 3 conflicting elements:
    • Passions
    • Intellect
    • Will
    • Most people live life allowing the PASSIONS, INTELLECT and WILL to be in conflict with one another.
    WILL INTELLECT PASSIONS
  • 17. Plato
    • Ethics
    • Ideal living is when the INTELLECT controls the PASSIONS through the WILL
    INTELLECT WILL PASSIONS
  • 18. Plato
    • Metaphysics
    • Reality can be divided into two realms:
    • The Visible World
    • Forms - Ideas
  • 19. Plato
    • Metaphysics
    • The Visible World
    • Lower - Imperfect
    • World experienced by our senses
    • Physical
    • Bound by Space and Time
    • Always changing
    • Always “becoming”
  • 20. Plato
    • Metaphysics
    • Ream of Forms-Ideas
    • Higher - Perfect
    • ULTIMATE REALITY
    • Not accessible to our senses
    • Non-Physical
    • Not Bound by Space and Time
    • Never Changing
    • Always “is”
    HORSE
  • 21. Plato's Cave
  • 22. Plato
    • Metaphysics
    • Body
    • Physical
    • Mortal
    • Changes (Birth, Growth, Death)
    • Imperfect
    • Non-material
    • Soul
    • Our permanent FORM
    • Timeless – Spaceless
    • Perfect
    • Immortal
    • The REAL You
    Soul Body
  • 23. Plato
    • Metaphysics
    • Physical Life is
    • Rehearal for Death
    • The purpose of this life is to achieve enlightenment – Penetrate the Ultimate Reality
    • Death releases the Soul from bondage to the physical body
    Soul Body
  • 24. Plato
    • Aesthetics
    • Opposed the Arts
    • The Arts attempt to represent Physical Reality
    • The Physical Reality is an imperfect representation of Ultimate Reality (Forms)
    • Therefore, the Arts are twice as deceptive at Physical Reality
    • The Arts only further confuse people about Ultimate Reality
  • 25. Plato Politics: The Ideal Republic
    • Philosophically Aware Rulers (Governing Class)
    • Police Class
    • (Protective Class)
    • General Population
    • (Worker Class)
  • 26. Aristotle
    • Area of Studies
    • Biology
    • Metaphysics
    • Logic
    • Politics
    • Ethics
    • Aesthetics
    • Psychology
  • 27. Aristotle
    • Logic
    • 3 Areas of Learning
    • Theoretical
    • Practical
    • Productive
    • Logic is a Tool underlying all learning
  • 28. Aristotle
    • Logic
    • Categories
    • Sets the boundary of terms
    • Essential in forming an argument
    Dogs Pugs Animals
  • 29. Aristotle
    • Logic
    • Aristotle mapped out and developed the system of Western Logic
    • Propositions
    • Syllogism
    • Basic Fallacies
  • 30. Aristotle
    • The 4 Causes
    • To really “know” something you need to know the causes of it.
    • Example:
    • What is a house?
  • 31. Aristotle
    • Material Cause
    • The “materials” that make up the thing.
    • Bricks are the material cause of a Brick House
  • 32. Aristotle
    • Material Cause
    • Insufficiency of the Material Cause
    • The materials that make up a thing are not the same as the thing itself.
      • A pile of Bricks is not a House
    • Some things can be made of different materials.
      • Houses can be made of Bricks or Wood or Metal.
  • 33. Aristotle
    • Formal Cause
    • The FORM of the thing.
    • The pattern, shape, characteristics of a thing.
    • Not the same as Plato's idea of Forms, i.e. no realm of forms.
    • The Form does not have an existence apart from the thing as in Plato's concept of Forms
  • 34. Aristotle
    • Efficient Cause
    • The cause that changes the materials into the thing.
    • The Tools/Instruments used to create the thing.
  • 35. Aristotle
    • Final Cause
    • The reason, purpose or goal of a thing.
    • Ex . The purpose of a house is to shelter a people.
    • Final Cause is evidence of an Intelligent Designer who provides things with purpose
    • Teleology – Nature Intelligent Design
  • 36. Aristotle
    • Friendships
    • Close Friends
      • Must be Equals
      • Of Good Virtue
      • Selfless in the friendship
      • Wants what's best and good for the other
      • Mutual respect for each others strengths
  • 37. Aristotle
    • Ethics: Virtues
    • Acquired by Habit
    • Not innate
    • Habit develops a disposition to act virtuously
    • The Golden Mean: Mid-point between 2 extremes
    Courage Cowardice Recklessness
  • 38. Aristotle
    • Ethics: Virtuous Life
    • Know what is Right
    • Do what is Right
    • Practical Wisdom - Make Right Decisions based on Good Reasons
    • Contemplation of the Best things NOT just Good things – Good is the enemy of the Best
    • Motivation for Doing Anything is Flourishing (Full - Meaningful)