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Philosophy lecture 03



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  • What is this? Did this bridge appear by chance? Could this bridge come into existence given billions of years? Is this evidence of a designer? Why?
  • What is this? Did this bridge appear by chance? Could this bridge come into existence given billions of years? Is this evidence of a designer? Why?


  • 1. Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 3
  • 2. Socrates
    • No Writings
    • What we know of Socrates comes from the writings of others such as Plato and Xenophon.
    • A Native of Athens, Greece
  • 3. Socrates Oracle of Delphi
    • Priestess of Apollo gifted in prophecy
    • She was asked, “Is there anyone wiser than Socrates?” She answered no.
    • Socrates felt this we wrong because he knew that he didn't know anything.
    • Socrates tried to refute the Oracle by questioning the Wise Men of Athens.
  • 4. Socrates Oracle of Delphi
    • Socrates learned that the men who “claimed” to be wise really knew very little but were ignorant about their lack of knowledge.
    • Though Socrates knew very little he was aware of his ignorance and was therefore wiser.
    • Socrates' paradoxical wisdom comes from realizing his own lack of knowledge.
  • 5. Socrates Trial and Death
    • Socrates public questioning of Athen's elite caused those in power to look foolish.
    • Social and Moral critic of Athens.
    • Criticized the common notion that “might is right” in Athens.
    • Accused of corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods of the state.
    • Sentenced to drink poison hemlock.
  • 6. Socrates The Socratic Method
    • What is Justice?
  • 7. Socrates The Socratic Method
    • What is Love?
  • 8. Socrates The Socratic Method
    • DIALECTIC: A method of seeking truth through a series of questions and answers.
    • The Socratic method is a “dialectic” method teaching.
    • To solve a problem, it is broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek.
  • 9. Socrates
    • Ethics
    • Socrates' primary concern in philosophy was, “How should we live?”
    • 3 Questions
    • What is good?
    • What is right?
    • What is just (justice)?
  • 10. Socrates
    • Ethics
    • Socrates' ethics assumes that Education is the key to living an ethical life.
    • No one desires evil.
    • No one errs or does wrong willingly or knowingly.
    • Virtue—all virtue—is knowledge.
    • Virtue = positive moral behavior
  • 11. Socrates
    • Ethics
    • The worst thing for a person is the corruption of his/her soul.
    • It is better to suffer injustice than to commit injustice.
  • 12. Socrates
    • Metaphysics
    • Common Properties universal characteristics of words (meanings)
    • Example:
    • Behind the word “justice” is a common property about justice that has an existence apart from our understanding.
    “ Justice”
  • 13. Socrates
    • Metaphysics
    • Common Properties
    • Universal characteristics of words (meanings)
    • An aspect of reality
    • Non-physical (abstract)
    “ Justice”
  • 14. Plato
    • Socrates' Student
    • Founded the Academy –
    • First institution for higher education
    • First Western philosopher whose writings have survived
    • Most of what we know about Socrates comes from Plato's writings
    • Agreed with Pythagoras that Mathematics were essential in understanding the world
  • 15. Plato
    • Ethics
    • Agreed with Socrates that the only real harm to a human is corruption of the soul – it is better to suffer wrong than to commit wrong
    • Disagreed with Socrates that virtue is simply a matter of knowing what is right
  • 16. Plato
    • Ethics
    • Humans are made of 3 conflicting elements:
    • Passions
    • Intellect
    • Will
    • Most people live life allowing the PASSIONS, INTELLECT and WILL to be in conflict with one another.
  • 17. Plato
    • Ethics
    • Ideal living is when the INTELLECT controls the PASSIONS through the WILL
  • 18. Plato
    • Metaphysics
    • Reality can be divided into two realms:
    • The Visible World
    • Forms - Ideas
  • 19. Plato
    • Metaphysics
    • The Visible World
    • Lower - Imperfect
    • World experienced by our senses
    • Physical
    • Bound by Space and Time
    • Always changing
    • Always “becoming”
  • 20. Plato
    • Metaphysics
    • Ream of Forms-Ideas
    • Higher - Perfect
    • Not accessible to our senses
    • Non-Physical
    • Not Bound by Space and Time
    • Never Changing
    • Always “is”
  • 21. Plato's Cave
  • 22. Plato
    • Metaphysics
    • Body
    • Physical
    • Mortal
    • Changes (Birth, Growth, Death)
    • Imperfect
    • Non-material
    • Soul
    • Our permanent FORM
    • Timeless – Spaceless
    • Perfect
    • Immortal
    • The REAL You
    Soul Body
  • 23. Plato
    • Metaphysics
    • Physical Life is
    • Rehearal for Death
    • The purpose of this life is to achieve enlightenment – Penetrate the Ultimate Reality
    • Death releases the Soul from bondage to the physical body
    Soul Body
  • 24. Plato
    • Aesthetics
    • Opposed the Arts
    • The Arts attempt to represent Physical Reality
    • The Physical Reality is an imperfect representation of Ultimate Reality (Forms)
    • Therefore, the Arts are twice as deceptive at Physical Reality
    • The Arts only further confuse people about Ultimate Reality
  • 25. Plato Politics: The Ideal Republic
    • Philosophically Aware Rulers (Governing Class)
    • Police Class
    • (Protective Class)
    • General Population
    • (Worker Class)
  • 26. Aristotle
    • Area of Studies
    • Biology
    • Metaphysics
    • Logic
    • Politics
    • Ethics
    • Aesthetics
    • Psychology
  • 27. Aristotle
    • Logic
    • 3 Areas of Learning
    • Theoretical
    • Practical
    • Productive
    • Logic is a Tool underlying all learning
  • 28. Aristotle
    • Logic
    • Categories
    • Sets the boundary of terms
    • Essential in forming an argument
    Dogs Pugs Animals
  • 29. Aristotle
    • Logic
    • Aristotle mapped out and developed the system of Western Logic
    • Propositions
    • Syllogism
    • Basic Fallacies
  • 30. Aristotle
    • The 4 Causes
    • To really “know” something you need to know the causes of it.
    • Example:
    • What is a house?
  • 31. Aristotle
    • Material Cause
    • The “materials” that make up the thing.
    • Bricks are the material cause of a Brick House
  • 32. Aristotle
    • Material Cause
    • Insufficiency of the Material Cause
    • The materials that make up a thing are not the same as the thing itself.
      • A pile of Bricks is not a House
    • Some things can be made of different materials.
      • Houses can be made of Bricks or Wood or Metal.
  • 33. Aristotle
    • Formal Cause
    • The FORM of the thing.
    • The pattern, shape, characteristics of a thing.
    • Not the same as Plato's idea of Forms, i.e. no realm of forms.
    • The Form does not have an existence apart from the thing as in Plato's concept of Forms
  • 34. Aristotle
    • Efficient Cause
    • The cause that changes the materials into the thing.
    • The Tools/Instruments used to create the thing.
  • 35. Aristotle
    • Final Cause
    • The reason, purpose or goal of a thing.
    • Ex . The purpose of a house is to shelter a people.
    • Final Cause is evidence of an Intelligent Designer who provides things with purpose
    • Teleology – Nature Intelligent Design
  • 36. Aristotle
    • Friendships
    • Close Friends
      • Must be Equals
      • Of Good Virtue
      • Selfless in the friendship
      • Wants what's best and good for the other
      • Mutual respect for each others strengths
  • 37. Aristotle
    • Ethics: Virtues
    • Acquired by Habit
    • Not innate
    • Habit develops a disposition to act virtuously
    • The Golden Mean: Mid-point between 2 extremes
    Courage Cowardice Recklessness
  • 38. Aristotle
    • Ethics: Virtuous Life
    • Know what is Right
    • Do what is Right
    • Practical Wisdom - Make Right Decisions based on Good Reasons
    • Contemplation of the Best things NOT just Good things – Good is the enemy of the Best
    • Motivation for Doing Anything is Flourishing (Full - Meaningful)