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Philosophy Lecture 01
 

Philosophy Lecture 01

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    Philosophy Lecture 01 Philosophy Lecture 01 Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 1
    • What is Philosophy?
      • “ philo” - love
      • “ sophia” - wisdom
      • Philosophy is the love of wisdom
      • Philosophy attempts to answer life's Big Questions
    • What is Philosophy?
      • Activity:
      • Write down 5 questions that you feel are the most important questions in life.
    • Some BIG Questions?
      • What is real?
      • Does God exist?
      • What happens after death?
      • Do we have souls?
      • How should I think about things?
      • What can I know?
      • How do I know?
    • Philosophy is about Questions
      • What?
      • Why?
      • How?
    • Philosophers ask Questions about what people Believe
      • What are the REASONS for a particular belief?
      • Do you believe in God? WHY?
      • Do you believe your ancestors protect you?
      • WHY?
      • Do you believe that murder is wrong? WHY?
    • Philosophy is about Examining Ourselves & Our Beliefs
      • “ The Unexamined Life is not worth living. ” (Socrates)
      • Have you ever looked in the mirror and asked:
      • Who am I?
      • Why am I here?
      • What should I do with my life?
    • Examining Ourselves
      • Activity
      • Answer the question:
      • Who are you?
      • Rules
      • - Don't give your name.
      • - Don't say what you do.
      • - Don't describe your nationality.
    • Examining Our Beliefs Behavior Actions / Things you do Beliefs and Values Why do you what you do? World-View Basic Assumptions about Reality
    • Examining Our Beliefs Behavior I talk to my friend Beliefs and Values I believe that my friend is real World-View I Exist. Other People Exist.
    • Examining Our Beliefs Behavior I talk to other people Beliefs and Values I believe that my friend is real World-View I Exist. Other People Exist. Descartes
    • Examining Our Beliefs
      • Discussion:
      • Does Mr. Mike exist?
      • Why do you believe that Mr. Mike exists or doesn't exist?
    • Branches of Philosophy Ethics Politics Religion Metaphysics Logic Epistemology Aesthetics Science Philosophy
    • Ethics
      • Moral Philosophy
      • Explores questions about morality
      • Good and Evil
      • Right and Wrong
      • Virtue and Vice
      • Justice
    • Ethics
      • Questions:
      • How should we live?
      • What is good and evil?
      • What is the best way to live?
      • What is Justice?
      • Is right and wrong the same everywhere or different everywhere?
    • Ethics
      • Discussion:
      • An elderly decorated war hero is a guest at your house. He gets a little drunk and starts to talk to your teenage sister inappropriately.
      • What do you do?
    • Epistemology
      • Knowledge Science
      • Explores the nature and limitations of knowledge
      • Definition of knowledge
      • Investigates how knowledge is obtained
      • Explores the relationship between belief, truth and knowledge
    • Epistemology
      • Questions:
      • What is knowledge?
      • How is knowledge acquired?
      • How do we know what we know?
    • Metaphysics
      • Knowledge Science
      • Explores the fundamental nature of reality and being
      • Ontology
      • Existence
      • Objects
      • Properties
      • Space and Time
      • Cause and Effect
    • Metaphysics
      • Questions:
      • What is real?
      • What is reality?
      • What is reality like?
    • Politics
      • Political Philosophy
      • Explores the relationship between citizens and governments
      • Liberty
      • Legal Justice
      • Property Ownership
      • Citizen's Rights
      • System of Law
    • Politics
      • Questions:
      • How should government be organized?
      • What makes a government legitimate?
      • Who decides who the leaders should be?
      • What laws are good and necessary?
      • How should law be enforced?
    • Aesthetics
      • Sensori-Emotional Values
      • Explores the nature of beauty, art, and taste with the creation and appreciation of beauty
    • Aesthetics
      • Questions
      • What is beauty?
      • What is art?
      • What is the value of beauty and art?
      • Who should judge what is beautiful or artistic?
      • How should art and beauty be judged?
    • Aesthetics
      • Discussion:
      • On the left is Marcel Duchamp's ready-made “sculpture” called “Fountain”. It's a factory-made urinal on a stand.
      • Is this “Art”?
      • Why / Why not?
      • Is it beautiful? Offensive?
      • Why?
    • Logic
      • Rules for Thinking
      • The systematic principles (or rules) for thinking rationally.
      • Inferences are made by construction of Arguments
      • Rules of Logic determine which arguments are VALID and which are FALACIES
    • Logic Vocabulary
      • Argument – a set of claims (evidence) used to support a conclusion.
      • Inferences – Logical conclusions
      • Argument:
      • All humans breathe air. Mr. Mike is a human.
      • Inference:
      • Therefore , Mr. Mike must breathe air.
    • Logic Vocabulary
      • Validity – When an argument leads to a sound (logical) inference (conclusion)
      • Fallacy – When an argument contains an error which leads to a false conclusion (inference) OR a conclusion that is not supported by the argument.
      • Valid Argument:
      • All humans breathe air.
      • Mr. Mike is a human.
      • Therefore, Mr. Mike must breathe air.
      • Fallacious argument:
      • All humans breathe air.
      • Mr. Mike is a human.
      • Therefore, Mr. Mike drinks water.
    • Logic Vocabulary
      • Logic cannot prove whether arguments are TRUE or FALSE .
      • Logic can only show that an argument is VALID or FALLACIOUS .
      • TRUE ≠ VALID
      • FALSE ≠ FALLACY
      • Valid Argument that is not True:
      • All humans can fly.
      • Mr. Mike is a human.
      • Therefore, Mr. Mike can fly.
      • Why is this argument VALID but not TRUE ?
    • Logic Vocabulary
      • Inductive logic – makes inferences from the particular (specific) to the general.
      • Inductive conclusions are “probable” but not 100% certain
      • Inductive logic establishes probability not validity
      • Inductive logic is essential to the scientific method
      • Inductive Argument:
      • Particular Observations :
      • Every American before 1870 has died.
      • Americans are still dying.
      • Generalization :
      • All Americans are mortals (don't live forever)
      • “ All Americans are mortals” is a “probable” conclusion.
    • Logic Vocabulary
      • Deductive logic – makes inferences from the general to the particular (specific).
      • Deduction establishes what must be true if all the premises are also true. But, deduction cannot establish the truth of the premises.
      • Inductive logic establishes what is validity .
      • Deductive Argument:
      • General Premises :
      • All men are mortal.
      • Socrates is a man.
      • Particular Conclusion :
      • Socrates is mortal.
    • Logic Vocabulary
      • Deductive logic is formed by using a syllogism .
      • A syllogism is an argument that contains two premises and a conclusion.
      • Syllogism:
      • Premise A:
      • All men are mortal.
      • Premise B :
      • Socrates is a man.
      • Conclusion:
      • Socrates is mortal.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Non Sequitor
      • A conclusion which does not follow from the premises.
      • Syllogism:
      • Premise A:
      • All men are mortal.
      • Premise B :
      • Socrates is a man.
      • Conclusion:
      • Socrates is smart.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Straw Man
      • Misrepresenting an opponent's position.
      • Person A:
      • I believe in God.
      • Person B:
      • Person A believes in things that don't exist like fairies, Santa Clause and aliens.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Sweeping Generalization
      • A generalization that does not account for possible exceptions.
      • Syllogism:
      • Premise A:
      • Cutting people is a crime.
      • Premise B :
      • Surgeons cut people.
      • Conclusion:
      • Surgeons are criminals.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Sweeping Generalization
      • A generalization that does not account for possible exceptions.
      • Syllogism:
      • Premise A:
      • Cutting people is a crime.
      • Premise B :
      • Surgeons cut people.
      • Conclusion:
      • Surgeons are criminals.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Hasty Generalization
      • A generalization that follows from examples that are too limited.
      • Syllogism:
      • Premise A:
      • Everybody I've met in England speaks English.
      • Premise B :
      • Everybody I've met in America speaks English.
      • Conclusion:
      • Everybody in the world speaks English.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Red Herring
      • A deliberate attempt to divert a process of enquiry by changing the subject.
      • Syllogism:
      • Mr. Jones:
      • President Smith needs show us good reasons for raising taxes.
      • President Smith :
      • Taxes are important, but this country really needs to reduce crime rates.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Ad Hominem
      • An attempt to disprove an opponents position by attacking his character instead of his logic.
      • Example:
      • Mr. Johnson's argument for lowering taxes can't be taken seriously. He is a billionaire and earned his money from very questionable business deals.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Ad Baculum
      • An attempt to silence an opponents position by threatening to use force or punishment.
      • Jim:
      • I don't think our company should spend $100,000 on executive bonuses.
      • Jim's Employer:
      • Be quiet Jim or I will fire you.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Loaded Questions
      • Groups more than one question or assertion in a single question.
      • Example:
      • Did you stop using drugs?
      • Problems:
      • (1) Question assumes a conclusion without proving it (i.e. you are a drug user).
      • (2) You can't answer the question without affirming that you used drugs.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Circular Reasoning
      • An argument is circular if its conclusion is among its premises, if it assumes what it is trying to prove.
      • Example:
      • Honest Joe claims to be honest.
      • Honest Joe never lies.
      • Therefore, Honest Joe really is honest.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Appeal to Popularity
      • Attempts to prove that an idea is true simply because it is widely held.
      • Example:
      • Most people believe that God exists.
      • Therefore, God must exist.
    • Logic Fallacies
      • Appeal to Popularity
      • Attempts to prove that an idea is true simply because it is widely held.
      • Example:
      • Most people believe that God exists.
      • Therefore, God must exist.
    • Religion
      • Philosophy of Religion
      • Branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion
      • Nature & Existence of God
      • Theology
      • Examination of Religious Experience
      • Analysis of Religious language and texts
      • Relationship between Religion and Science
    • Religion
      • Questions
      • Does God exist?
      • What is God?
      • What is the nature of the relationship between God and humans?
      • Is God active in the world? How?
      • Is there life after death?
      • What is the relationship between Religion and Ethics? ...Religion and Science?
    • Religion
      • What is God?
      • Assuming that God exists, there are at least 4 general answers to this question.
      • Monotheistic answer
      • Polytheistic answer
      • Pantheistic answer
      • Panentheistic answer
      • Within each general view of God there are many specific versions.
    • Religion
      • Monotheism
      • What is God?
      • God is...
      • One – only one God exists
      • Omniscience (all-knowing), Omnipotence (all-powerful), and Omnipresence (present every where)
      • The 3 major monotheistic religions are: Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
    • Religion
      • Polytheism
      • What is God?
      • God is Many
      • Many gods exists
      • Can be as few as 2 gods or or millions of gods
      • Ancient Greek and Roman religions are examples of polytheistic religions.
    • Religion
      • Pantheism
      • What is God?
      • God is the Universe and the Universe is God.
      • There is no distinction between God and the universe (nature).
      • Some forms of Buddhism are examples of pantheism.
    • Religion
      • Panentheism
      • What is God?
      • God is in the Universe and the Universe is in God
      • God is more than the Universe.
      • God and the Universe are connected but not identical.
    • Philosophy of Science
      • Science
      • Concerned with the assumptions, foundations, methods and implications of science.
      • Empirical Verification
      • Inductive Logic
      • Objectivity of the Observer
    • Philosophy of Science
      • Questions
      • What is the natural world?
      • How should we study nature?
      • What methods are useful in the study of nature?
      • Can science establish Natural Laws which are absolute (true everywhere and for everyone)?
      • What are the limits of scientific knowledge?