Philosophy Lecture 01


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Philosophy Lecture 01

  1. 1. Introduction to Philosophy IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 1
  2. 2. What is Philosophy? <ul><li>“ philo” - love </li></ul><ul><li>“ sophia” - wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy is the love of wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy attempts to answer life's Big Questions </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Philosophy? <ul><li>Activity: </li></ul><ul><li>Write down 5 questions that you feel are the most important questions in life. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Some BIG Questions? <ul><li>What is real? </li></ul><ul><li>Does God exist? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens after death? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have souls? </li></ul><ul><li>How should I think about things? </li></ul><ul><li>What can I know? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I know? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Philosophy is about Questions <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Philosophers ask Questions about what people Believe <ul><li>What are the REASONS for a particular belief? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe in God? WHY? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe your ancestors protect you? </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe that murder is wrong? WHY? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Philosophy is about Examining Ourselves & Our Beliefs <ul><li>“ The Unexamined Life is not worth living. ” (Socrates) </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever looked in the mirror and asked: </li></ul><ul><li>Who am I? </li></ul><ul><li>Why am I here? </li></ul><ul><li>What should I do with my life? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Examining Ourselves <ul><li>Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the question: </li></ul><ul><li>Who are you? </li></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>- Don't give your name. </li></ul><ul><li>- Don't say what you do. </li></ul><ul><li>- Don't describe your nationality. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Examining Our Beliefs Behavior Actions / Things you do Beliefs and Values Why do you what you do? World-View Basic Assumptions about Reality
  10. 10. Examining Our Beliefs Behavior I talk to my friend Beliefs and Values I believe that my friend is real World-View I Exist. Other People Exist.
  11. 11. Examining Our Beliefs Behavior I talk to other people Beliefs and Values I believe that my friend is real World-View I Exist. Other People Exist. Descartes
  12. 12. Examining Our Beliefs <ul><li>Discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>Does Mr. Mike exist? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you believe that Mr. Mike exists or doesn't exist? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Branches of Philosophy Ethics Politics Religion Metaphysics Logic Epistemology Aesthetics Science Philosophy
  14. 14. Ethics <ul><li>Moral Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Explores questions about morality </li></ul><ul><li>Good and Evil </li></ul><ul><li>Right and Wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue and Vice </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ethics <ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>How should we live? </li></ul><ul><li>What is good and evil? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best way to live? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Justice? </li></ul><ul><li>Is right and wrong the same everywhere or different everywhere? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ethics <ul><li>Discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>An elderly decorated war hero is a guest at your house. He gets a little drunk and starts to talk to your teenage sister inappropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Epistemology <ul><li>Knowledge Science </li></ul><ul><li>Explores the nature and limitations of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Investigates how knowledge is obtained </li></ul><ul><li>Explores the relationship between belief, truth and knowledge </li></ul>
  18. 18. Epistemology <ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What is knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>How is knowledge acquired? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we know what we know? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Metaphysics <ul><li>Knowledge Science </li></ul><ul><li>Explores the fundamental nature of reality and being </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Existence </li></ul><ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Space and Time </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul>
  20. 20. Metaphysics <ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What is real? </li></ul><ul><li>What is reality? </li></ul><ul><li>What is reality like? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Politics <ul><li>Political Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Explores the relationship between citizens and governments </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Property Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen's Rights </li></ul><ul><li>System of Law </li></ul>
  22. 22. Politics <ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>How should government be organized? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a government legitimate? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decides who the leaders should be? </li></ul><ul><li>What laws are good and necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>How should law be enforced? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Aesthetics <ul><li>Sensori-Emotional Values </li></ul><ul><li>Explores the nature of beauty, art, and taste with the creation and appreciation of beauty </li></ul>
  24. 24. Aesthetics <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>What is beauty? </li></ul><ul><li>What is art? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the value of beauty and art? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should judge what is beautiful or artistic? </li></ul><ul><li>How should art and beauty be judged? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Aesthetics <ul><li>Discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>On the left is Marcel Duchamp's ready-made “sculpture” called “Fountain”. It's a factory-made urinal on a stand. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this “Art”? </li></ul><ul><li>Why / Why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it beautiful? Offensive? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Logic <ul><li>Rules for Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>The systematic principles (or rules) for thinking rationally. </li></ul><ul><li>Inferences are made by construction of Arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of Logic determine which arguments are VALID and which are FALACIES </li></ul>
  27. 27. Logic Vocabulary <ul><li>Argument – a set of claims (evidence) used to support a conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Inferences – Logical conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Argument: </li></ul><ul><li>All humans breathe air. Mr. Mike is a human. </li></ul><ul><li>Inference: </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore , Mr. Mike must breathe air. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Logic Vocabulary <ul><li>Validity – When an argument leads to a sound (logical) inference (conclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacy – When an argument contains an error which leads to a false conclusion (inference) OR a conclusion that is not supported by the argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Valid Argument: </li></ul><ul><li>All humans breathe air. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Mike is a human. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, Mr. Mike must breathe air. </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacious argument: </li></ul><ul><li>All humans breathe air. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Mike is a human. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, Mr. Mike drinks water. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Logic Vocabulary <ul><li>Logic cannot prove whether arguments are TRUE or FALSE . </li></ul><ul><li>Logic can only show that an argument is VALID or FALLACIOUS . </li></ul><ul><li>TRUE ≠ VALID </li></ul><ul><li>FALSE ≠ FALLACY </li></ul><ul><li>Valid Argument that is not True: </li></ul><ul><li>All humans can fly. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Mike is a human. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, Mr. Mike can fly. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this argument VALID but not TRUE ? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Logic Vocabulary <ul><li>Inductive logic – makes inferences from the particular (specific) to the general. </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive conclusions are “probable” but not 100% certain </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive logic establishes probability not validity </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive logic is essential to the scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive Argument: </li></ul><ul><li>Particular Observations : </li></ul><ul><li>Every American before 1870 has died. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans are still dying. </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization : </li></ul><ul><li>All Americans are mortals (don't live forever) </li></ul><ul><li>“ All Americans are mortals” is a “probable” conclusion. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Logic Vocabulary <ul><li>Deductive logic – makes inferences from the general to the particular (specific). </li></ul><ul><li>Deduction establishes what must be true if all the premises are also true. But, deduction cannot establish the truth of the premises. </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive logic establishes what is validity . </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive Argument: </li></ul><ul><li>General Premises : </li></ul><ul><li>All men are mortal. </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates is a man. </li></ul><ul><li>Particular Conclusion : </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates is mortal. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Logic Vocabulary <ul><li>Deductive logic is formed by using a syllogism . </li></ul><ul><li>A syllogism is an argument that contains two premises and a conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Syllogism: </li></ul><ul><li>Premise A: </li></ul><ul><li>All men are mortal. </li></ul><ul><li>Premise B : </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates is a man. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates is mortal. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Non Sequitor </li></ul><ul><li>A conclusion which does not follow from the premises. </li></ul><ul><li>Syllogism: </li></ul><ul><li>Premise A: </li></ul><ul><li>All men are mortal. </li></ul><ul><li>Premise B : </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates is a man. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates is smart. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Straw Man </li></ul><ul><li>Misrepresenting an opponent's position. </li></ul><ul><li>Person A: </li></ul><ul><li>I believe in God. </li></ul><ul><li>Person B: </li></ul><ul><li>Person A believes in things that don't exist like fairies, Santa Clause and aliens. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Sweeping Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>A generalization that does not account for possible exceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Syllogism: </li></ul><ul><li>Premise A: </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting people is a crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Premise B : </li></ul><ul><li>Surgeons cut people. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Surgeons are criminals. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Sweeping Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>A generalization that does not account for possible exceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Syllogism: </li></ul><ul><li>Premise A: </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting people is a crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Premise B : </li></ul><ul><li>Surgeons cut people. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Surgeons are criminals. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Hasty Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>A generalization that follows from examples that are too limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Syllogism: </li></ul><ul><li>Premise A: </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody I've met in England speaks English. </li></ul><ul><li>Premise B : </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody I've met in America speaks English. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody in the world speaks English. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Red Herring </li></ul><ul><li>A deliberate attempt to divert a process of enquiry by changing the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Syllogism: </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Jones: </li></ul><ul><li>President Smith needs show us good reasons for raising taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>President Smith : </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes are important, but this country really needs to reduce crime rates. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Ad Hominem </li></ul><ul><li>An attempt to disprove an opponents position by attacking his character instead of his logic. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Johnson's argument for lowering taxes can't be taken seriously. He is a billionaire and earned his money from very questionable business deals. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Ad Baculum </li></ul><ul><li>An attempt to silence an opponents position by threatening to use force or punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim: </li></ul><ul><li>I don't think our company should spend $100,000 on executive bonuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim's Employer: </li></ul><ul><li>Be quiet Jim or I will fire you. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Loaded Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Groups more than one question or assertion in a single question. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Did you stop using drugs? </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Question assumes a conclusion without proving it (i.e. you are a drug user). </li></ul><ul><li>(2) You can't answer the question without affirming that you used drugs. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Circular Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>An argument is circular if its conclusion is among its premises, if it assumes what it is trying to prove. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Honest Joe claims to be honest. </li></ul><ul><li>Honest Joe never lies. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, Honest Joe really is honest. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Appeal to Popularity </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to prove that an idea is true simply because it is widely held. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Most people believe that God exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, God must exist. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Logic Fallacies <ul><li>Appeal to Popularity </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to prove that an idea is true simply because it is widely held. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Most people believe that God exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, God must exist. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Religion <ul><li>Philosophy of Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion </li></ul><ul><li>Nature & Existence of God </li></ul><ul><li>Theology </li></ul><ul><li>Examination of Religious Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Religious language and texts </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between Religion and Science </li></ul>
  46. 46. Religion <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Does God exist? </li></ul><ul><li>What is God? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the nature of the relationship between God and humans? </li></ul><ul><li>Is God active in the world? How? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there life after death? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between Religion and Ethics? ...Religion and Science? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Religion <ul><li>What is God? </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming that God exists, there are at least 4 general answers to this question. </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheistic answer </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic answer </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheistic answer </li></ul><ul><li>Panentheistic answer </li></ul><ul><li>Within each general view of God there are many specific versions. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Religion <ul><li>Monotheism </li></ul><ul><li>What is God? </li></ul><ul><li>God is... </li></ul><ul><li>One – only one God exists </li></ul><ul><li>Omniscience (all-knowing), Omnipotence (all-powerful), and Omnipresence (present every where) </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 major monotheistic religions are: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Religion <ul><li>Polytheism </li></ul><ul><li>What is God? </li></ul><ul><li>God is Many </li></ul><ul><li>Many gods exists </li></ul><ul><li>Can be as few as 2 gods or or millions of gods </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Greek and Roman religions are examples of polytheistic religions. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Religion <ul><li>Pantheism </li></ul><ul><li>What is God? </li></ul><ul><li>God is the Universe and the Universe is God. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no distinction between God and the universe (nature). </li></ul><ul><li>Some forms of Buddhism are examples of pantheism. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Religion <ul><li>Panentheism </li></ul><ul><li>What is God? </li></ul><ul><li>God is in the Universe and the Universe is in God </li></ul><ul><li>God is more than the Universe. </li></ul><ul><li>God and the Universe are connected but not identical. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Philosophy of Science <ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with the assumptions, foundations, methods and implications of science. </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical Verification </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity of the Observer </li></ul>
  53. 53. Philosophy of Science <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>What is the natural world? </li></ul><ul><li>How should we study nature? </li></ul><ul><li>What methods are useful in the study of nature? </li></ul><ul><li>Can science establish Natural Laws which are absolute (true everywhere and for everyone)? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the limits of scientific knowledge? </li></ul>