Nutrients (2)

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Nutrients (2)

  1. 1. Micro- and macro-nutrients
  2. 2. Definitions
  3. 3. • Micro-nutrients: They are substances which are required by the body in small amounts and are co- factor of enzymes. They include vitamins and trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe• Macro-nutrients: They are substance required in large amounts and include proteins, fats, carbohydrates and minerals (Na, Ca, S, Cl)
  4. 4. VITAMINS• Vitamins are known as fat soluble or water soluble• Fat soluble vitamins (A, D,E, K) are long with a non-polar hydrocarbon chain or ring• They are able to accumulate in the fatty tissue of the body• Water soluble vitamins (C and the eight B-group vitamins) contain hydrogen which is attached to an electronegative oxygen or nitrogen which can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules They cannot be stored. They must be consumed every day.
  5. 5. Vitamins containing C=C double bonds and –OHgroups are easily oxidised and keeping foodrefrigerated slows down this process
  6. 6. TYPES OF VITAMINS
  7. 7. VITAMIN A (RETINOL)
  8. 8. It contains only one –OH group It is fat soluble due to its long non-polar hydrocarbon chain It is not easily broken down by cooking• Required for the production of rhodopsin> light changes its conformation> creation of nerve impulse> vision
  9. 9. VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID)
  10. 10. Due to the number of –OH groups this vitamin issoluble in waterIt is not retained for long in the bodyA disease known as scorbutus (scurvy) isassociated with the lack of this vitaminThe symptoms are: swollen legs, rotten gumsIt was most commonly noticed in sailors who spentlong periods of time without fresh food
  11. 11. VITAMIN D (CALCIFEROL)
  12. 12. It is a large hydrocarbon with one –OH group andit is fat solubleA deficiency of vitamin D leads to: bone softeningand malformation which is known as rickets
  13. 13. MALNUTRITION
  14. 14. This occurs when either too much food isconsumed leading to obesity or the diet islacking in certain micro- or macro- nutrients
  15. 15. MICRO-NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES• Fe  anaemia > fatigue• I  goiter > swallen thyroid gland• Vitamin A  xerophthalmia & night blindness• Vitamin B3  pellagra > diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis• Vitamin B1  beriberi > muscles, heart, nerves• Vitamin C  scurvy > rotten gums• Vitamin D  rickets > malformation/softening of bones
  16. 16. MACRO-NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES• Deficiency in macronutrient such as proteins cause marasmus (growth retardation) and kwashiorkor (fatigue, weight loss)• Deficiency in Ca produces osteoporosis Deficiency in Na produces cramps
  17. 17. CAUSES OF NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES• Developed world - low income - poor eating habits• Developing world - poverty - famine
  18. 18. SOLUTIONS TO COMBAT MALNUTRITION Eating fresh food rich in vitamins and minerals Adding nutrient which that are missing in commonly consumed foods Genetic modification of foods Providing nutritional supplements

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