G11 s lequilibria
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G11 s lequilibria

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G11 s lequilibria Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 7.2 The Position of Equilibrium Deduce Kc Le Chatelier’s Principle
  • 2. Key Points thus far…• A reaction is at equilibrium if :- The rate of the forward reaction = the rate of the backward reaction, therefore quantities remain constant Macroscopically there is no change however microscopically there is constant change Equilibria only exist in a CLOSED SYSTEM – from which no energy exchange is possible An equilibrium can favour products ( rhs ) or reactants (lhs)
  • 3. Kc and the Magnitude of Kc• Kc is the equilibrium constant, where….• When Kc>> 1, the reaction goes almost to completion.• When Kc<< 1, the reaction hardly proceeds.
  • 4. Some Examples• For the synthesis of an ester…….
  • 5. OK give me another example• Ammonia synthesis
  • 6. And just one more• Contact Process
  • 7. Position of Equilibirum• Consider Ammonia synthesis …..• What will be the effect of removing Ammonia ?• What will be the effect of adding Hydrogen ?
  • 8. Le Chatelier’s Principle• If a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the conditions, the position of equilibrium moves to counteract the change.• If you remove something ( same as decreasing concentration ) the equilibrium will seek to replace it.
  • 9. Good old Ammonia • Impact of removing – 1. Ammonia – 2. Hydrogen – 3. Nitrogen• Impact of increasing pressure ( GASES ONLY ) – As pressure is a consequence of the impact of gas molecules on its container, the equilibrium will shift to the side with LESS GAS MOLECULES to counteract the change.
  • 10. So What About Temperature ?• This is a little more complicated.• If exothermic• If endothermic
  • 11. Is that everything ?• Well……..NO !• Catalysts • A catalyst has absolutely no effect on the position of equilibrium, it merely increases the rate at which equilibrium is reached.
  • 12. Back to the practical 