About UsMpule K. Kwelagobe Mpule Kwelagobe is the founder and CEO of the MPULE Institute for Endogenous Development (MIED), and President of the Botswana-based MPULE Foundation, which she founded in 1999 to address the HIV/AIDS crisis in Botswana. As Director of the NEW Africa Leadership Program, Mpule engages in research on traditional knowledge systems and how they inform endogenous development. In 2003, Mpule was selected as a Global Leader for Tomorrow by the World Economic Forum, which also selected her to join the forum of Young Global Leader in 2006. In 2000, she was appointed as the United Nations Goodwill Ambassador for Youth and HIV/AIDS by the UN’s Population Fund, UNFPA. In this capacity, she addressed members of the United States Above – Mpule with Her Congress, participated in policy forums in Washington DC, Excellency President Joyce Banda lobbied European donor governments on behalf of the UN and of the Republic of Malawi spoke on panels at global development forums including the World Summit on Sustainable Development.Mpule is the second person to receive the Freedom of the City Key to Gaborone, Botswana (after formerPresident, Sir Ketumile Masire). She also holds Freedom of the City Keys to Asuncion, Paraguay andPort-Of-Spain, Trinidad. In 1999, at the age of 19, Mpule Kwelagobe made history as the first delegate torepresent Botswana at the Miss Universe pageant, and she won! She became the first African woman tobe crowned Miss Universe. Mpule holds a degree in International Political Economy (IPE) fromColumbia University in the City of New York.MPULE InstituteThe MPULE Institute is a New York City-basedadvocacy and public policy think tank thatchampions agriculture-led development,inclusive green growth, gender equality andwomen’s empowerment, and sustainabledevelopment pathways in Africa.Through the MPULE Foundation, ourBotswana-based development fund, theMPULE Institute has 12 years of experience inconvening and partnering with multi- Above: Mpule with African female leaders who have supportedstakeholders to create multisectoral approaches our work. From right: Joy Phumaphi, former Minister of Healththat empower women and youth to address (Botswana) and former World Bank Vice President; Gracapressing social issues. Machel, co-founder: The Elders, founder: New Faces NewThe MPULE Institute was founded in Voices, former Minister of Education (Mozambique); LadySeptember 2011. Gladys Olebile Masire, former First Lady of Botswana
MPULE Foundation The MPULE Foundation has partnered with nearly 20 multi-stakeholders including the Government of Botswana, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Harvard AIDS Institute, African Youth Alliance (AYA), Botswana National Youth Council (BNYC), Bristol Myers Squibb’s Secure the Future AIDS Foundation, Botswana Council of Churches (BCC), Botswana Family Welfare Association (BOFWA), Botswana Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS (BONEPWA), Coping Center of People Living with HIV/AIDS (COCEPWA), Youth Health Organization (YOHO) and the Botswana Council of Women (BCW) and launch health and youth empowerment programs in over 20 urban and rural areas across Botswana. In the US, the MPULE Foundation has partnered with or supported the Magic Johnson Foundation, Hale House, God’s Love We Deliver and amFAR AIDS Research. In 2001, the MPULE Foundation was awarded the Jonathan Mann Human Health Rights Award by the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care Above – Mpule receiving the (IAPAC). Jonathan Mann Human Health Rights Award in Chicago, USAThe MPULE Foundation was established in 1999 byreigning Miss Universe, Mpule Kwelagobe ofBotswana, and was registered as a Trust in January2001. Founding board members of the Trust includethe Governor of the Bank of Botswana, Linah K.Mohohlo; the Minister of Health of the Republic ofBotswana, Honorable Joy Phumaphi and Dr. RichardMarlink of the Harvard AIDS Institute. Today theMPULE Foundation also serves as the patronorganization for the Mpule Kwelagobe Children’sCenter in Jwaneng, Botswana. Above – Mpule with the Reverend Mpho Moruakgomo launching the MPULE Foundation under the theme “Keep Hope Alive.” The MPULE Foundation was launched in Gaborone, Serowe, Mahalapye, Palapye, Francistown, Mathangwane, Maun, Ghanzi, Tsabong, Kang, Jwaneng, Molepolole and other rural areas across Above – Mpule visiting AIDS activist, Botswana Elizabeth Kganu, in Selibwe Phikwe, Botswana. UN Goodwill Ambassadors for Belgium and Finland accompanied Mpule. Elizabeth lost her life a week after the visit.
NEW Africa Leadership ProgramIn Women’s Hands: Empowering the Next Generation of African Female LeadersThe Network of Women Investing in Africa (NEW Africa) Leadership Program is a multidisciplinaryinitiative to mobilize the next generation of African female leaders (Change Agents) aged 35 and undercommitted to championing social issues and dedicated to creating innovative, integrated solutions toaddress challenges spanning Agriculture, Health, Education, Water, Energy, Infrastructure andTechnology. The MPULE Institute unveiled the NEW Africa Leadership Program at the Clinton GlobalInitiative (CGI) Meeting in New York City.In Women’s Hands Research confirms that women reinvest 90% of their incomes in their children and families, and that putting incomes and assets in the hands of women leads to higher investments in food security, health and nutrition, education, and human development. Left – Mpule speaks with a mother at Nyangabgwe Hospital in Francistown, Botswana.
The Feminization of Poverty Poverty is gendered in Africa. Gender inequality in access to and control of a wide range of human, economic and social assets and other socio-economic, political and cultural constraints, presents enormous challenges for women to achieve economic empowerment, and constitutes a key dimension of human poverty that results in deprivation in education, health and nutrition. The feminization of poverty means that women and the poor are often one and the same across Africa.Women and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)Millennium Development Goal 3 on gender equality is shown to have multiplier effects that advanceachievement of the other MDGs, proving that women’s empowerment is critical to realization of all theMillennium Development Goals.“Promoting gender equality, women’s empowerment and endingviolence against women is essential to human development, poverty eradication and economic growth.” Womens Economic Human Rights Empowerment Political Social Empowerment EmpowermentGender Equality and Women’s EmpowermentThe NEW Africa Leadership Program’s Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment (GEWE) frameworkwill empower Agents of Change to become gender equality and women’s empowerment champions whowill advocate for the elimination of all forms of discrimination and violence against women and girls,promote women’s rights to own and inherit property and have equal access to productive assets andresources, ensure girls and women have access to critical social services such as education andreproductive health services, and increase women’s political participation and access to decision making.Agriculture-Led DevelopmentWomen play an important role in agricultural development across Africa. Women constitute 50% of theagricultural labor force and are responsible for 80% of the food production and 50% of the agricultural
output. Agriculture is an engine of growth and poverty reduction in agriculture-dependent countries inAfrica where it is the main occupation of rural women and the poor, often one and the same. GDP growthgenerated by agriculture is 4X more effective in reducing poverty than non agricultural growth. But theagriculture sector in Africa is underperforming because women, who represent a crucial resource inagriculture and the rural economy through their roles as farmers, laborers and entrepreneurs, face moresevere constraints than men in access to productive resources.Closing the Gender Gap for DevelopmentThe NEW Africa Leadership Program will serve as an internetworking platform for change agents through aPeer Approach (PA) strategy. The MPULE Institute will engage in comprehensive research on Genderand Development (GAD), create multisectoral programs and agendas for the NEW Africa LeadershipProgram and convene African female political, social and economic thought-leaders from government,private sector corporations, financial and investment banking institutions, research policymaking anddiplomatic mission, multilateral agencies, academic institutions and non-government organizations toengage with change agents, provide mentoring and development and further the dialogue and capacity onclosing the gender gap for development.Gender MainstreamingThe MPULE Institute will advocate for all stakeholders to engage in gender analysis in order to identify,understand and redress inequities between women and men, girls and boys, based on gender roles andgender relations, to review their existing policies and strategies and ensure greater and better participationby women, and to produce gender disaggregated data that reveals the impact of policies and programmingon women The Convention on African Union The Beijing the Elimination of Solemn Platform for Action all forms of Declaration on (BPfA, 1995) and Discrimination Gender Equality in Dakar Platform for against Women Africa (SDGEA, Action (1994) (CEDAW, 1979) 2004) African Union African Union UN Resolution Gender Policy and Protocol on the 1325 on Women, Action Plan (2009) Rights of Women Peace and Security & Maputo in Africa (ACHPR (2000) Declaration (2003) Protocol, 2003)
ForewordUncovering the Multiplier Effects of Investing in Women Dear Change Agent, I’m pleased to welcome you to the Network of Women Investing in Africa (NEW Africa) Leadership Program to empower the next generation of African female leaders under the age of 35. The goal of the NEW Africa Leadership Program is to advance gender equality and women’s empowerment by fostering entrepreneurial ecosystems, creating crosscutting support networks and providing mentoring opportunities for our young women. The NEW Africa Leadership Program is a multidisciplinary program to engage, empower and mobilize Change Agents committed to addressing critical social issues by creating innovative multisectoral solutions spanning Agriculture, Water, Health, Energy, Education, Technology and Infrastructure. Why We Are Investing in Women Research confirms that women reinvest the majority of their incomes in their children and families, and that putting assets and incomes in women’s hands leads to higher investment in health, nutrition, education and human development. Empowering women is the best way to ensure inclusive and sustainable development in AfricaPromoting gender equality, and ending violence and discrimination against women is essential to povertyeradication, economic growth and human development in AfricaEndogenous DevelopmentEndogenous Development is development from within. This is the heart of the MPULE Institute. We areengaging in comprehensive research on Gender and Development (GAD) to create multisectoralprograms and agendas that will build capacity within our NEW Africa Leadership Program ChangeAgents. We will also convene African female political, social and economic thought-leaders fromgovernment; private sector corporations, financial and investment banking institutions; research,policymaking and diplomatic missions; multilateral agencies; academic institutions and non-governmentorganizations to engage with Change Agents and further capacity on closing the gender gap fordevelopment.Investing in Our FutureWe bring 12 years of extensive experience in global advocacy andpublic policy to strengthen women’s rights, ensure their voices areheard, increase their participation in development and decision makingroles. For over a decade, we have convened and partnered with multi-stakeholders to empower women and youth to create multisectoralapproaches to pressing social issues. Our goal is to equip NEW AfricaLeadership Program Change Agents with leadership skills, tools andcapacity-building and training opportunities that will strengthen theirown social enterprises. Moving forward, we encourage you to makewomen’s concerns an integral dimension of the design, implementation,monitoring and evaluation of your social commitment. To that end, I’mpleased to present our NEW Africa Leadership Program handbook:Investing in Women: Investing in Our Future. Challenges, Opportunities Above – Mpule with Nelson Mandela,& Benefits. We hope you will use this guide to design an integrated Nobel Laureate and former Presidentinnovative solution to address your social enterprise and create social of the Republic of South Africa at theimpact. The information contained within this guide is by no meansexhaustive, but is intended to provide a starting point on the critical role official launching of the MPULEof women in development. Foundation in Gaborone, Botswana
Introduction1. Poverty is Gendered Poverty is gendered in Africa, not only economic poverty but a broader sense of human poverty resulting in deprivation in education, health and nutrition. A few examples: only 51 percent of African females over the age of 15 are able to read and write, compared to 67 percent of males. 75 percent of people between the ages of 15-24 who are HIV positive are women. Limited education and employment opportunities for women in Africa have reduced annual per capita growth by 0.8 percent. Had this growth taken place, Africa’s economies would have doubled over the past 30 years1.2. Women are the Face of Poverty in Africa Women comprise 52 percent of Africa’s population, and play a vital role in agricultural and rural development across the continent. Rural women constitute 50 percent of the agricultural labor force in Africa; they are responsible for 80 percent of the food production and 50 percent of the agricultural output2. Women own nearly 80 percent of all enterprises across Africa, which are growing at a greater rate than those owned by men. Yet African women earn only 10 percent of the continent’s incomes and own 1 percent of the land and assets.3. Agricultural Dependency Africa is home to 30 of the world’s 40 agriculture-dependent countries3. GDP growth in countries such as Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, and Burkina Faso is determined by performance of the agricultural sector1. As in Botswana, agricultural sector growth regressed significantly in most African countries from the 1960s onwards. Countries that were net food exporters in the 1960s relied on imports and food aid for 30 percent of their staple crop needs in 2009.4. Rural Poverty & Development Across Sub-Saharan Africa, 80 percent of the poorest people live in rural areas, the home of 70 percent of Africa’s food insecure population. Since poor people overwhelmingly rely on agriculture and natural resources for their livelihoods, agricultural growth is 4 times more effective at reducing poverty than any other sector. It is unsurprising therefore that most agriculture dependent countries in Africa are ranked as Least Developed Countries (LDCs), much of this attributed to neglect of, and ensuing underperformance by, the agricultural sector.5. Hunger and Food Insecurity Currently 290 million people in Africa are malnourished—94 million of them chronically— making Africa the region with the highest percentage of undernourished people in the world4. The agricultural sector in Africa needs to grow by at least 6.2 percent per annum to meet the needs of the existing food insecure population and feed 24 million annual additions projected to double Africa’s current population of 1.03 billion to 2 billion by 2050. Sustainable agricultural
intensification is a prerequisite in order for Africa to realize the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) on poverty and hunger.6. Climate Related Food Insecurity Africa is the region most at risk of climate change related hunger. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) predicts that the number of food insecure people will increase by 10- 20 percent by 2050 and that Africa will account for 65 percent of the total increase5 as food systems are impacted by floods, droughts, rising sea levels, dry winds and water and heat stress. Production of wheat, rice and maize is projected to be lowered by 36 percent, 15 percent and 7 percent respectively relative to the no climate change scenario by 20506.7. Malnutrition in Women and Children Rural mothers and their children are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition. Climate change will compound this. Rural women are 68 percent more likely to be undernourished than urban women. Research suggests that mineral and vitamin deficiency, or hidden hunger in women, causes mothers to give birth to malnourished babies7. The correlation of food, health and nutrition and human development, especially in the first 1000 days of a child’s life, mandates for mothers and children to form the central focus of food security and nutrition efforts. Challenges8. The Challenge to Achieve the MDGs in Africa The challenge to eradicate poverty, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases remains critical to Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) to achieve inclusive development and economic growth8.9. Underperformance of the Agriculture Sector The most effective way out of poverty is through agriculture-based development. Agriculture is 4 times more likely to lift poor people out of poverty than any sector. As such, agriculture is an important engine for growth and poverty reduction in SSA. But the sector is underperforming in many African countries in part because women face constraints that reduce their productivity.9 Rural female farmers receive a mere 1 percent of total credit to agriculture and have fewer economic rights and lower access to economic opportunities, including land and credit facilities. Upon widowhood, many rural women lose their livestock, farm equipment and cultivation rights due to customary laws that deny women’s inheritance rights to land and assets. The proportion of female headed farms and households is growing in rural areas where men migrate to urban areas searching for work. Rural women are crucial in translating agricultural production (including livestock, crops, fisheries, agro-forestry and wild-harvesting of foods) into food and nutrition security for the wellbeing of their families, communities and nations10. Some of women’s primary agricultural responsibilities include weeding, harvesting, threshing, and storing. In livestock production women are often responsible for herding, watering, cleaning, milking and milk processing. Women are also solely responsible for household gardens11.This has contributed to the feminization of agriculture and the feminization of poverty. The feminization of poverty has meant that rural women and the poor, who might be thought of as two different disadvantaged groups, are actually often one and the same12.
10. The Effects of Gender Inequality Gender inequality affects African women in multiple ways: low incomes, difficulty accessing formal financial services, poor access to health services and education, heavy household burdens and inability to secure formal employment13. Gender inequality in access to and control of a wide range of human, economic and social assets, and other socio-economic, political and cultural constraints present enormous challenges for women to achieve economic empowerment and constitutes a key dimension of poverty14. Gender inequality remains a big challenge in Sub Saharan Africa, despite the recognition that educating and empowering women and girls is important to achieving all MDGs15.11. Child Malnutrition Poverty and hunger lead to malnutrition, causing physiological and cognitive damage. Child malnutrition is particularly detrimental, as many health impacts incurred from conception to two years are irreversible16. Countries where women lack rights to own land have on average 60 percent more malnourished children; where women lack any access to credit the number of malnourished children is 85 percent above average17.12. Water, Energy Infrastructure & Women’s Labor Burden Women in Africa report working over 16 hours a day, and work up to 30 additional hours per week than men. An African woman’s average workday lasts 50 percent longer than that of a man and she shoulders the burden of unpaid activities often linked to low access to clean water and energy sources. A study in Africa found that over the course of a year, women carried more than 80 tons of fuel, water and farm produce for a distance of 1kilo meter. Men carried an average of 10 tons, one-eighth, over the same distance. 80 percent of rural households in developing countries use wood, crop residues and dung as fuel for cooking. Collecting fuel wood is one of the most time consuming tasks that women and girls undertake18. On average, rural women and girls spend an hour every day collecting water. Water is a main ingredient in food processing and other major household and market economies in which women are engaged. Limited access to water by communities also affects women’s livelihoods disproportionately19. Women’s ability to be more actively engaged in economic activities is affected by their heavy labor burden and communities with low infrastructure (transport, water and sanitation and energy) are worse affected20.13. Lack of Access to Financial Resources Women have less access to productive resources and services, such as land, livestock, extension services, financial services and new technology required by producers21. Across all developing regions, women are consistently less likely to own or operate land; they’re also less likely to have access to rented land, and when they do own land, they generally operate smaller plots than men. Given the extensive participation of women in all aspects of agricultural production, the mainstreaming of gender into the agriculture sector is a key strategy for poverty reduction, sustainable agricultural intensification and rural development.2214. The Impact of Climate Change Climate change is a multiplier of existing threats to food security, hunger and malnutrition. It will make natural disasters more frequent and intense, land and water more scarce and difficult to access, and increases in productivity even harder to achieve23. Rural women by the nature of their
responsibilities are impacted by biodiversity losses, natural disasters, land and water degradation and desertification, many of which are effects of climate change and human exploitation24. As primary users and custodians of local natural resources, African women are an invaluable asset in community-based natural resource management. Opportunities15. Women are Key to Achieving the MDGs “MDG3 on gender equality and MDG1 on poverty and hunger are mutually reinforcing25.” Our dependence on women’s agriculture is high and steadily growing. Access to productive assets such as land and credit is necessary for women’s economic empowerment, improving women farmer’s productivity, increasing their direct access to food by enhancing their incomes and assets. Improving women’s access to food items from common pool resources and initiating schemes that directly raise food availability for women in poor households26. Women’s economic empowerment is affected by their access to and control over productive resources and financial services, including access to land and credit27. Education of women and girls is an essential ingredient for ensuring child health and welfare, reducing maternal mortality, and breaking the cycle of intergenerational poverty. Gender equality is critical to achieving all Millennium Development Goals because women’s empowerment (GEWE) has large multiplier effects on other MDGs28.16. The Potential of Electronic and Mobile Technologies Rural women’s primary asset is their own labor, but a large amount of their time is spent in household reproduction activities such as gathering firewood and collecting water. This time poverty limits women’s opportunities to engage in activities that are more productive. A total of 79 percent of rural women work over 16 hour per day when it can be reduced by half if improved household technologies had been introduced29. The labor burden carried by rural women jeopardizes their health and generally inhibits human and family development. Ignoring the link between women’s labor burden and household production capacity perpetuates household food insecurity30. Removing the obstacles faced by women yields a double harvest: it improves their lives while allowing them to put their labor, creativity and knowledge to work more productively31. Electronic and Mobile technologies can provide access to information that is important for strengthening women’s agricultural productivity and economic enterprises through accessing information on credit, inputs, processing and markets, transportation and health services32. Rural female farmers will benefit greatly from up-to-date weather advisory information and current market commodity prices. Geo-mapping and geo-indicators will ensure that women fetch higher market prices for organic produce grown in their home-gardens; smart micro grid solutions will help make renewable energy, primarily solar energy, more affordable. Mobile penetration and SMS platforms are already revolutionizing the African landscape. Adapting such platforms into local, mother-tongue languages will further increase their value to rural women. All these technologies can support rural development and agricultural productivity.17. The Role of Labor Saving Technologies Women have a higher labor burden (work far longer hours) than men33, and rank shortages of water, fuel and food at the top of the list of problems they face, followed closely by lack of access to health care and their crushing and tedious workload34. The provision of basic infrastructure and sustainable energy reduces the disproportionate burden of domestic activities on women35.
Science, technology and innovation platforms can offer proven solutions to many challenges faced by rural women. These solutions include labor-saving technologies such as water pumps and community water schemes, improved cooking technologies, improved transport of water, wood and crops, improved cultivation techniques, post harvest and food processing technologies36.18. Transportation & Infrastructural Development A World Bank study reported that 87 percent of trips in rural Africa take place on foot. Of this, the time women spent accounts for more than 65 percent of households’ time and effort put on transport37. Women face particular challenges based on their reproductive and care giving roles. These include a lack of accessible, affordable, and/or adequate health services. While accessibility is an issue for both men and women, it is often more of a constraint for rural women as they face restrictions on mobility and lack access to transport or means for contacting transport. Because of expense of transport and of health services, for instance, the costs of childbirth can quickly exhaust a family’s income, bringing with it even more financial hardship38. Transport is a key element for rural women’s economic empowerment and for sustainable development in general. Not only is it closely related to the issue of rural women’s collection of water and fuel wood, but also, it is important for enabling women’s greater participation in institutions as well as mobility to access input and output markets, health services and formal and informal education opportunities39.19. Agricultural Technologies for Development Technology will play a leading role in agricultural intensification and productivity. 79 percent of rural women work over sixteen hours a day in Africa. The bulk of this time is absorbed by women’s primary responsibilities of gathering firewood and collecting water for their families. These two tasks occupy up to 6 hours of time each day. This “time-poverty” hampers women’s opportunities to maximize their potential in agricultural development40. Labor-saving technologies, including easier access to clean water and fuel-efficient cooking stoves are imperative to free up women’s time while improving their health concurrently.20. Traditional Knowledge Systems The diversity of cultures around the world has produced diverse ecosystem management, and climate change adaptation and mitigation techniques and skills. As custodians of culture, rural women possess traditional knowledge of edible and medicinal food sources, and manage the biodiversity in and around farming systems. In turn, they apply their knowledge in polycultural food systems. Indigenous and traditional knowledge systems (IKS) are community-led approaches that rely on the knowledge, skills and practices of indigenous and rural people41. This is the core of endogenous development. The endogenous development framework recognizes 4 pillars of development: cultural, social, economic and environmental pillars. Culture constitutes the central pillar, acknowledgement of its utmost relevance to development in Africa. Cultural knowledge, traditions and practices both shape gender relations within communities and influence relationships between communities and their environment42.
Pillars of Endogenous Development Economic Cultural Social Environmental Benefits21. Agricultural Productivity African women are the backbone of agricultural and rural development; their economic empowerment is the key to sustainable development. Land is the single most important asset for both poor and non-poor households in Africa. Improving women’s access to land and security of tenure has direct impacts on farm productivity; improving ownership of livestock is another key asset in rural areas where draught animals are the main source of power. Mobilizing resources for economic development of land owned by women and ensuring social services address specific needs women have in view of their roles and responsibilities43. Eliminating the gaps between men and women in access to agricultural resources and inputs would raise yields on women’s farms up to 30 percent, increase agricultural productivity in developing countries by nearly 4 percent, which could reduce the number of undernourished people in the world almost 17 percent or 150 million people44. Improving production and yield of women’s crops and vegetables would mean better food and clothing for the household, and also mean that families can survive in times of price fluctuations and marketing constraints for cash crops45. A concerted focus on women as farmers, food consumers and family food managers would enhance food security at all levels within the family, the country and globally. Women have crucial roles to play as primary food processors and preparers for their families. Access to food is only one part of nutritional security. Dietary variety, nutritional adequacy, intra-household distribution of food, preparation and feeding are important determinants of how food is converted to nutrition. And as natural resource managers, women are experienced in management of agriculture and food production, fisheries, forests, soil and water resources, and have developed skills in conservation that are built into their traditional subsistence activities46.
22. Gender Equality Promoting gender equality, women’s empowerment and ending human rights violations, including violence, against women is essential to agricultural growth and rural development. Increasing rural women’s access to land and water resources, credit services and entrepreneurship training; ensuring agricultural policies and programmes are sensitive to gender differences in roles and activities; ensuring that agricultural research and extension programmes are gender sensitive; increasing gender awareness in the commercialization of agriculture and increasing women’s empowerment and access to decision making47 are critical elements. Growth, poverty reduction, health outcomes and educational opportunities are all missed when women are not empowered to make their own decisions and to participate fully in the economic and political system48.Achievement in gender equality and empowerment should be assessed within the framework of four inter-related areas: economic, social, political and women’s human rights (a rights-based approach). Gender equality denotes women having equal access to social, economic, political and cultural opportunities as men49.23. Empowered Women, Resilient Nations Research confirms that putting more income in the hands of women yields beneficial results for health, education and child nutrition50. Women are the key to improving household food security and nutritional wellbeing. In the hands of women, food is most likely to reach the mouths of children. Improving women’s direct access to financial resources leads to higher investments in human capital in the form of children’s health, nutrition and education. Women reinvest 90% of their income in their children and household. Closing the gender gap in development would put more resources in the hands of women and strengthen their voice within households, a proven strategy for enhancing food security, nutrition, education and health of children. Assets and incomes in mother’s hands are found to have significantly greater effect on the health, nutrition and education of children51. Gender equality in access to education and health services relates directly to reductions in child hunger, maternal and newborn mortality, and vulnerabilities to HIV/AIDS. Healthy educated and productive women are more likely to have children who are better nourished, better educated and healthier52.
Workshop Programme – NEW Africa Leadership Program February 2013 Gaborone, BotswanaDay 1: Capacity Development Workshop8:00am – 5:00pmThe morning of Day 1 of our NEW Africa Leadership workshop will feature an opening plenary, a paneldiscussion and a Q&A session following presentations in the morning. In the afternoon, participants willbreak into Working Groups; each working group will focus on a specific theme related to the overarchingtheme of the NEW Africa Leadership workshop. The working group session is the foundation for theDesign Lab on Day 2.Day 2: Design Lab8:00am – 1:00pmThe second day will be a half day during which participants will discuss and agree on outcomes from theprevious day. Participants will develop a workshop Summary Report, including a Plan of Action. TheMPULE Institute will also issue a White Paper on Gender and Development following the workshop. Theworkshop will cover topics including: The Vital Role of Women in Agriculture-Led Development Clean Energy, and the Critical Role of Women in Climate Change Adaptation & Mitigation How Health Systems Impact the Productivity of Women Ending Discrimination & Violence Against Women Clean Water, Sanitation & Hygiene for Women Fostering Inclusive and Sustainable Growth for Women, Youth and the Poor in the New Africa Economy Young Women’s Movement Within the African Women’s Decade The Role of Women in Regional Integration and the Political economy of AfricaWorkshop Outputs: 1. Workshop Summary Report: capturing workshop statements, presentations, discussions and recommendations 2. MPULE Institute White Paper: capturing NEW Africa Leadership Program participants’ discourse on Gender and Development 3. 1 Year Plan of Action on social commitmentsNEW Africa Leadership Program - Annual Report 2013An Annual Report of the NEW Africa Leadership Program will be released in late Fall 2013
Please select one (1) of the following ten (10) themes and write an extended abstract (1000-2000 words).The extended abstracts will be used to place you in your Working Group for the workshop and the DesignLab. Extended Abstracts must be related to your existing or intended social enterprise, show measurableimpact (potential or demonstrated). All abstracts should be formatted as follows:Theme:Title of your social enterprise/commitment/solution:Brief background:Objective:Methodology/Approach:Deadline: Draft: Friday 4th January 2013, Final Abstract: January 18thKey phrases: poverty and hunger; agriculture; environmental sustainability, HIV/AIDS, malaria andcommunicable diseases; child and maternal mortality; peace and security; governance; finance; economicempowerment and entrepreneurship; young women’s movement; gender equality and women’sempowerment; women in decision-making positions; education, science and technology; universalprimary education; trade, policy and market access; global partnerships for development • The Vital Role of Women in Agriculture- 1 Led Development • Clean Energy and the Critical Role of 2 Women in Climate Change Adaptation & Mitigation • How Health Systems Impact Productivity 3 of Women • Ending Discrimination & Violence against 4 Women • Clean Water, Energy and Infrastructure for 5 Women
• Fostering Inclusive & Sustainable 6 Growth for Women, Youth & Poor in the New African Economy • Young Women’s Movement within the 7 African Women’s Decade 2010-2020 • The Role of Women in Regional 8 Integration and the Political Economy of Africa • The Role of Information & 9 Communication Technologies for Development*Please be advised that an Extended Abstract is prerequisite for attending the NEW AfricaLeadership Program workshopFrequently Asked QuestionsQUESTION 1: Where will the NEW Africa Leadership Program training take place?Depending on your cluster, your training will either take place in Botswana/South Africa (SouthernAfrica), Ghana (West Africa) or Kenya (East Africa). Our first training seminars are for the southernAfrica clusters. You do not need to travel to New York nor take a leave of absence from your currentjobs/commitments to participate in our program. However, if youre selected into the program youll needto put aside two (2) days for the first program seminar.QUESTION 2: How does the program work?Change Agents will be placed in “Working Group” clusters for the Program, Workshop and Design Lab.The clusters are designed to foster entrepreneurial ecosystems, provide crosscutting support networks andmentoring opportunities for Change Agents. Our “Each One, Teach One” peer approach strategy isdesigned so that each Change Agent has at least one mentor and in turn mentors at least one other ChangeAgent.QUESTION 3: What is the purpose of the clusters and extended abstracts?Each cluster is designed to encourage Change Agents to view social enterprise from a multisectoralintegrated systems approach. For example: water, energy, transportation, technology, even health systems
and access to capital markets all impact on the productivity of female farmers. Change Agents interestedin reviving rural farming will need to take all these dimensions into consideration to design an innovativesolution. Abstracts ensure that Change Agents are placed within clusters that will contribute to thegrowth of their social enterprise, and are the foundation for Change Agent learning to write winningproject proposals.QUESTION 4: What will I gain from participating in the NEW Africa Leadership Program?Among its goals, the NEW Africa Leadership Program will: Increase Change Agents awareness on Gender and Development dimensions and issues, and how to design social enterprises from a holistic multisectoral integrated systems approach Build capacity in Change Agents to access funding, grants, fellowships, write winning proposals for collaborative opportunities with stakeholders Bring visibility to Change Agents’ social initiatives and endeavors by utilizing the program as an advocacy and public policy platform Foster transformative private-public partnerships and innovative multisectoral solutions that allow Change Agents to achieve scale, efficiency and effectiveness in their social enterprises Change Agents will learn about our partners’ Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), sustainable development (SD), philanthropic, social investment and sustainability initiatives and identify areas of convergence with their own initiatives Convene African female policymakers and gender machineries to disseminate information about international gender instruments and continental gender policies that can strengthen the work of Change Agents Pursuant to the Plan of Action, the MPULE Institute will provide year round capacity-building sessions through workshops, seminars, and other formal and informal networking sessions and meetings for Change Agents both within and outside their countriesQUESTION 5: I currently don’t have a social enterprise. Will I still benefit from participating inthe NEW Africa Leadership Program?Yes. The best way to learn how to design a social enterprise is through experience and helping others whoalready have established social enterprises. Working Groups clusters will include both Change Agentsready to implement and/or scale their social enterprises with dynamic Change Agents who will providesupport and feedback.QUESTION 6: Why the focus on Women & Girls? What about Men & Boys?Engaging Men & Boys is critical to achieving gender equality. We are designing a strategy on ourengagement with Men & Boys, particularly to address discrimination and Violence against Women(VAW). Our focus on Women & Girls is to remedy the social injustice and exclusion of women fromdecision-making and development agenda. Our objectives are to strengthen women’s voices and ensurethey are heard, thereby advancing women’s human rights, economic empowerment, social empowermentand political empowerment.QUESTION 7: How will the program work if the MPULE Institute is based in New York City?Were currently exploring establishing satellite offices in Botswana/South Africa and Ghana/Nigeria toensure maximum social impact. We hope to identify interested change agents to represent us in ourendeavor and our Commitment to Africa.QUESTION 8: Am I required to work for the MPULE Institute?
No. Change Agents are not required to work for the MPULE Institute or any of its partners or sponsors.We hope many Change Agents will be empowered to establish social enterprises that will provide muchneeded jobs across Africa. We may extend an invitation to select Change Agents to incubate their socialenterprises within our Institute. This is subject to Change Agents rigorously demonstrating potentialand/or measured impact of their enterprises.QUESTION 9: What is the difference between the MPULE Institute and the MPULE Foundation?The MPULE Institute is a New York based advocacy and public policy think tank. The Institute engagesin research on inclusive green growth to foster sustainable development pathways in Africa. The MPULEFoundation is a Botswana-based development fund registered according to the laws of the Republic ofBotswana in 2001.Bibliography & Recommended Reading1 Africa Partnership Forum Support Unit and NEPAD Secretariat. Briefing Paper No. 3, September 2007. Gender andEconomic Empowerment of Women.2 United Nations. August 2011. Report of the Secretary-General. Agricultural Technologies for Development. NewYork.3 Conceicao P., Horn-Phathanothai L., Ngororano A., Food Security and Human Development in Africa: StrategicConsiderations and Directions for Further Research, 2011 African Human Development Report4 Conceicao P., Horn-Phathanothai L., Ngororano A., Food Security and Human Development in Africa: StrategicConsiderations and Directions for Further Research, 2011 African Human Development Report5 Food Security and Human Development in Africa: Strategic Considerations and Directions for Further Research6 Agarwal B., Food Crises and gender Inequality, United Nations Department of Economic and Social AffairsWorking Paper, June 20117 Women and the WFP: Helping Women Help Themselves, the World and Food Programme, March 20118 Lopi B., December 2004. Commission for Africa. Gender & Poverty in the Context of Human Development, Health,Education and the MDGs. Lusaka, Zambia.9 Doss C. et al, March 2011. ESA Working Paper No. 11-02. The Role of Women in Agriculture. The Food andAgriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome.10 Hill C., UN Women. Expert Group Meeting, September 2011. Enabling Rural Women’s Economic Empowerment:Institutions, Opportunities and Participation. Accra, Ghana.11 Frank E,. October 1999. USAID. Gender, Agricultural Development and Food Security in Amhara Ethiopia: TheContested Identity of Women Farmers in Ethiopia, Ethiopia.12 Commonwealth Secretariat. 2001. Gender Mainstreaming in Agriculture and Rural Development. A ReferenceManual for Governments and other Stakeholders, United Kingdom.13 Africa Partnership Forum Support Unit and NEPAD Secretariat. Briefing Paper No. 3, September 2007. Genderand Economic Empowerment of Women.14 Lopi B., December 2004. Commission for Africa. Gender & Poverty in the Context of Human Development, Health,Education and the MDGs, Zambia.15 Dejene A., Promoting Women’s Economic Empowerment in Africa, African Development Bank.16 The World Economic Forum. 2010. Realizing a New Vision for Agriculture: A roadmap for stakeholders,Switzerland.17 OECD. 2010. Gender Inequality and the MDGs: What are the Missing Dimensions? Paris.18 Hill C., United Nations (UN) Women. Expert Group Meeting, September 2011. Enabling Rural Women’s EconomicEmpowerment: Institutions, Opportunities and Participation. Accra, Ghana.
19 Dejene Y., African Development Bank. Promoting Women’s Economic Empowerment in Africa.20 Dejene A., African Development Bank. Promoting Women’s Economic Empowerment in Africa.21 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2011. The Vital Role of Women in Agricultureand Rural Development, thirty-Seventh Session Conference, Rome.22 Commonwealth Secretariat. 2001. Gender Mainstreaming in Agriculture and Rural Development. A ReferenceManual for Governments and other Stakeholders, United Kingdom.23 World Food Programme. 2010. WFP in Africa: 2010 Facts and Figures, Rome.24 Hill C., United Nations (UN) Women. Expert Group Meeting. September 2011. Enabling Rural Women’s EconomicEmpowerment: Institutions, Opportunities and Participation. Accra.25 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Thirty-seventh Session, 2011. The Vital Role ofWomen in Agriculture and Rural Development, Rome.26 Agarwal B., June 2011. United Nations Department of Economic & Social Affairs Working Paper No. 107. FoodCrises and Gender Inequality. New York27 OECD Center. 2010. Gender Inequality and the MDGs: What are the Missing Dimensions? Paris.28 Lopi B., Commission for Africa. December 2004. Gender & Poverty in the Context of Human Development, Health,Education and the MDGs, Lusaka.29 Frank E., USAID. October 1999. Gender, Agriculture Development and Food Security in Amhara, Ethiopia: TheContested Identity of Women Farmers in Ethiopia. Ethiopia.30 Frank E., USAID. October 1999. Gender, Agriculture Development and Food Security in Amhara, Ethiopia: theContested Identity of Women Farmers in Ethiopia. Ethiopia.31 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UN). Women, Agriculture and Food Security.32 Hill C., United Nations (UN) Women. Expert Group Meeting. September 2011. Enabling Rural Women’s EconomicEmpowerment; Institutions, Opportunities and Participation. Accra, Ghana.33 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UN). Women, agriculture and food security, Rome.34 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Women, agriculture and food security, Rome.35 United Nations Development Programme (2010). What Will it Take to Achieve the MDGs? An InternationalAssessment, New York.36 United Nations. August 2011. Report of the Secretary General. Agricultural Technology for Development. NewYork.37 Dejene Y., African Development Bank. Promoting Women’s Economic Empowerment in Africa.38 Ibid39 Hill C., UN Women. Expert Group Meeting, September 2011. Enabling Rural Women’s Economic Empowerment:Institutions, Opportunities and Participation. Accra, Ghana.40 Frank E., Gender, Agricultural Development and Food Security in Amhara, Ethiopia: The Contested Identity ofWomen Farmers in Ethiopia, USAID October 199941 Indigenous people encompass self-identified autochthonous peoples, rural smallholder farmers, pastoralists,hunters & gatherers and nomads.42 Soetan R.O., Culture, Gender and Development, the Center for Gender and Social Policy Studies, Nigeria,October 201143 Africa Partnership Forum Support Unit and NEPAD Secretariat. Briefing paper No. 3, 2007. Gender and EconomicEmpowerment of Women, Berlin.44 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2011. The State of Food and Agriculture. Womenin Agriculture: Closing the Gender Gap, Rome.45 African Development Bank. March 2004. Multi-Sector Country Gender Profile. Agriculture and RuralDevelopment North East and South Region (Onar), Ethiopia.46 Commonwealth Secretariat. 2001. Gender Mainstreaming in Agriculture and Rural Development: A Referencemanual for Governments and Other Stakeholders. United Kingdom.47 Commonwealth Secretariat. 2001. Gender Mainstreaming in Agriculture and Rural Development: a ReferenceManual for Governments and Other Stakeholders. United Kingdom.48 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). June 2010. The Path to Achieving the MillenniumDevelopment Goals: A synthesis of evidence from around the world. New York.
49 African Development Forum. November 2008. Achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment in Africa.Action on Gender Equality, Women’s Empowerment and Ending Violence Against Women in Africa. Ethiopia.50 World Food Programme. March 2011. Women and WFP: Helping women help themselves, Rome.51 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Thirty-seventh Session, July 2011. The Vital Roleof Women in Agriculture and Rural Development. Rome.52 International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations(FAO), World Food Programme (WFP). 2011. The State of Food Insecurity in the World: How does internationalprice volatility affect domestic economies and food security? Rome.Recommended Reading 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2011. The State of Food and Agriculture 2010-2011. Women in Agriculture: Closing the Gender Gap for Development, Rome. 2. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). 2011. Rural Poverty Report 2011. New Realities, New Challenges: New Opportunities for Tomorrow’s Generation, Rome. 3. The World Bank. 2012. World Development Report. Gender Equality and Development, Washington, DC. 4. United Nations Development Programme Regional Bureau for Africa (RBA), 2012. Africa Human Development Report 2012. Towards a Food Secure Future, New York. 5. United Nations. 2011. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011, New York. 6. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), IFAD and International Labor Organization (ILO) 2010. Gender Dimensions of Agricultural and Rural Employment: Differentiated Pathways out of Poverty: Status, Trends and Gaps, Rome. 7. UN Millennium Project. 2005. Investing in Development: a Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals, New York. 8. Millennium Development Goal 8. The Global Partnership for Development: Time to Deliver, 2011. The MDG Gap Task Force Report, United Nations 2011. 9. UNDP, June 2010. What Will It Take to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals? An International Assessment, New York. 10. UNDP, 2010. The Path to Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: A Synthesis of Evidence from Around the World, New York.About the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI)Established in 2005 by President Bill Clinton, the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) convenes global leadersto create and implement innovative solutions to the world’s most pressing challenges. CGI AnnualMeetings have brought together more than 150 heads of state, 20 Nobel Prize laureates, and hundreds ofleading CEOs, heads of foundations and NGOs, major philanthropists, and members of the media. Todate CGI members have made more than 2,100 commitments, which are already improving the lives ofnearly 400 million people in more than 180 countries. When fully funded and implemented, thesecommitments will be valued at $69.2 billion.CGI also convenes CGI America, a meeting focused on collaborative solutions to economic recovery inthe United States, and CGI University (CGI U), which brings together undergraduate and graduatestudents to address pressing challenges in their community or around the world. For more information,visit clintonglobalinitiative.org and follow us on Twitter @ClintonGlobal and Facebook atfacebook.com/clintonglobalinitiative.