• Understand what is Motivation
• Understand some of the early theories of
• Understand the contemporary theories fo
• Understand motivation practices in
4.1 What is Motivation?
4.2 Early theories of Motivation
4.3 Applied Motivation Practices
4.1 What is Motivation?
• Motivation is a process which begins with a physiological,
psychological need or deficiency which triggers behavior or
a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive
• An individual's performance depends more on how much
he/she is motivated, rather than on his abilities alone.
• An unmet need creates a tension, which stimulates drives
within the individual. This drive generates a search to find
and attain certain goals which when reached would result
in satisfaction of the unmet need.
4.2 Early Theories of Motivation
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Also known as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, it identifies a
hierarchy of five needs which an individual goes through:
a) Physiological – hunger, thirst, shelter, bodily needs.
b) Safety – security, physical, emotional, financial, etc.
c) Social – affection, sense of belonging, friendship, etc.
d) Esteem – internal factors like self respect, autonomy,
achievement, and external factors like status,
recognition, attention, etc.
e) Self Actualization – drive to become what one deeply
desires to become, achieving one’s potential, selffulfillment.
2. Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views on
Theory X -Employees inherently dislike work and
hence would avoid it. They need to be coerced,
controlled through rewards/punishment to do
work. They place security above other factors.
Theory Y – Employees view work as natural as
rest and play. They are self-directed and have self
control and commitment. They accept, even seek
responsibility. They are creative and have the
capacity to stretch.
3. Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Fredrick Herzberg, a psychologist, raised two questions
when studying human beings:
What do people seek from their jobs?
Could they describe in detail, situations in which they feel
exceptionally good or bad about their jobs?
The findings of the study revealed that the replies/reasons
given by them when they felt good were significantly
different from the ones given when they felt bad.
When they felt good, they attributed it to themselves or
When they felt bad, they attributed to the outside
conditions, or extrinsic conditions
It was interesting to know that the opposite of
satisfaction was not dissatisfaction.
Removing or minimizing dissatisfaction did not
necessarily make the jobs satisfying.
Herzberg proposed the presence of a dual
continuum: The opposite of “satisfaction” is “no
satisfaction” and the opposite of “dissatisfaction” is
He propose two factors: Hygiene factor and
Hygiene factor is that whose presence is essential as a
basis for motivation. The presence of Hygiene factor does
not motivate, but the absence “quite” demotivates. For
example: decent working conditions
Motivation factor is that whose is essential as the core of
motivation. In spite of presence of hygiene factor,
motivation factor need to be introduced. For example: a
decent working conditions does not demotivate. It needs
to be added up with factors such as monetary or nonmonetary means to make satisfaction happen.
Hygiene, forms the background before Motivation is
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
David McClelland proposed three major relevant
motives or needs at the workplace:
i) The need for Achievement – n-Ach: the drive to achieve
and excel and succeed.
ii) The need for Power – n-Pow: the drive or need to
control other and situations.
iii) The need for Affiliation – n-Affl: the need to belong and
be a part of a group.
2. Goal-Setting Theory
• When goals are set clearly, it has been observed to be a
source of motivation.
• With goal clarity emerges a comfort zone within the
individual leading to motivation.
• In other words, many people seem unaware or not sure of
their goals. When they are directed to a goal with clarity,
they get motivated.
• This is particularly seen to be the case at the operational
level of working in organizations. By helping them set their
own goals, they are seen to feel higher motivation than
3. Reinforcement Theory
• Behaviors that are needed for a certain goal achievement
are encouraged and those are not needed or detrimental
for the goal achievement are discouraged.
• Positive Reinforcement – encouraging behaviors that are
needed. This is done through Rewards.
• Negative Reinforcement – discouraging unwanted
behaviors from occurring. This is done through
• This theory is also called as Reward-Punishment Theory of
• It is applied throughout our workplace at all levels.
4. Equity Theory
Proposed by Stacy Adams, this theory is based on the fact that people
compare each other either blatantly or latently.
The comparison is more pronounced at the workplace since work gives
people an identity and importance socially.
Employees naturally compare the work they do and the rewards they
get with the work done by others and the rewards others get.
This comparison usually results in a feeling of inequity or inequality,
resulting in “bad emotions” which could rob the employees of
Adams proposed that the inequity should be removed and converted
into equity, or a feeling of wellness or feel-good.
5. Expectancy Theory
• This theory, proposed by Victor Vroom, is based on how the strength
of a tendency to get motivated is dependent upon expectations and
• It includes three variables: Attractiveness, Performance-reward
linkages, Effort-Performance linkages.
• When a task is perceived attractive, the individual feels it is worth it to
put in efforts to perform. This is known as first-level outcome.
• When the performance leads to expected results and rewards, he puts
in more efforts, leading to better performance and better results. This
is known as second level outcome.
• Motivation is said to occur highest when all three factors are at their
peak: attractiveness, performance-reward linkage, effort-performance
4.3 Applied Motivation Practices
• There are two types of motivational
practices adopted by organizations:
a) Non-monetary motivation: awards,
letters of appreciation, etc.
b) Monetary motivation: membership and
seniority-based rewards, job-status based
rewards, competency-based rewards, etc.
Membership and seniority rewards are common and constitute rewards
which are like entitlements for work done by virtue of seniority and
long period of employment.
While this is common and is considered as a ”reward’ for loyalty and
seniority, it is observed that over a period of time, efficiency comes
Organizations, in their drive to stay competitive want their employees
to earn every bit only through performance. It follows the dictum: You
perform, you earn. You perform more, you earn more.
Performance –based rewards are thus, based not on seniority, but on
Other forms of Monetary motivation
Job Design as a form of Motivation
The job itself serves as a motivation is structured
Job Design is based on the fact that employees
are subject to boredom at work, leading to loss of
interest and loss of motivation and in turn
By making or designing jobs more interesting to
break monotony, without sacrificing the content
and end-outcome, jobs are restructured through
Types of Job Design
Three types of Job Design are commonly resorted to in
Job Rotation: moving employees from one job to another
Job Enlargement: combining more tasks into the job to
make it more involved and meaningful
Job Enrichment: adding some ‘delight’ element which the
job holder cherishes and makes him feel good, like
allowing him to take more responsibilities, empowering
him to take decisions. This type of motivation is selfgrowth oriented and is seen to retain employees.
• We studied what is Motivation.
• The historical background to Motivation Theories
• Early and contemporary theories of Motivation
• Motivation in application comprising non-monetary
and monetary was discussed.
• Job Design as a means of Motivation was also
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