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  • “motivation” – to move
  • Maybe the motivators are actually just all related to sex?
  • e.g. job design studies – but these usually fail
    Many needs satisfied by goal setting, but also goals are part of the process of motivating
  • Organisations attempt to use motivation in order to manipulate what people want

Transcript

  • 1. Motivation & Stress Dr. Joe O’Mahoney 2007 07906133649
  • 2. Learning objectives • To understand content and process theories of motivation • To know how organisations attempt to manage employee motivation • To critique the theories, assumptions and practice of motivation literature 07906133649
  • 3. The Agenda 1. What is Motivation? 2. Theories of Motivation 3. Critiquing Motivation 07906133649
  • 4. What is Motivation? 07906133649
  • 5. What is motivation? • What is my motivation? • I am motivated (internal drive) • What am I motivated to do? 07906133649
  • 6. What motivates you? • Motivators – – – – – • Security (physical, food, psychological) Power (position, money, authority) Sex Social (peer-esteem, love, belonging) Expression (creativity, achievement, identity) It's not that I'm so smart, it's just that I stay with problems longer. Why does it matter? – – – – If you’re not motivated you’re dead Controlling people Labour vs. Labour Power The cost & inadequacy of supervision I was saying "I'm the greatest” long before I believed it.
  • 7. Theories of Motivation 07906133649
  • 8. Needs / Content Theories • Needs / Content Theories – Maslow – Hertzberg – Alderfer Maslow Maslow Herzberg Motivators Hygiene Factors 07906133649
  • 9. Process Theories • • • • • Decision-making processes E.g. Vroom, Porter and Lawler, Adams Goal Setting Expectancy Theory: M = E x I x V But…overly rational? Too many variables? Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Effort - Performance Link Performance - Rewards Link Rewards - Personal Goals Link No matter how much effort you put in, probably not possible Your tutor does not look like someone who has £1 million There are a lot of wonderful things you could do with £1 million to memorise the text in 24 hours E=0 I=0 07906133649 V=1
  • 10. Motivated to do what? • All cultures have…. – Hierarchies……but of what? – Sex……..but with what? – Groups….but of what? • Conditioning – Pavlov and Skinner – Reinforcement (punishment / reward) – Peer pressure 07906133649
  • 11. Managing Worker’s Motivations: HRM • Needs – – – – • Security Social Power Expression - pay, insurance, job security - team work, feedback, socialising, respect - authority, autonomy, decision-making, status - achievement, challenge, innovation Process: goals – Goal Setting / Management by Objectives – Specific, measurable, attainable goals – Participation 07906133649
  • 12. Critique of Motivation 07906133649
  • 13. The failure of organisational motivation? • Failure? – Most efforts = short-term improvements (Herzberg, 1968) – Little evidence in most jobs – Modern programs do more harm than good e.g. portfolio careers, deregulation, flexiblity, temporary contracts • Resistance motivators – Making out – Stories and identities (Frese, 1982) – Games • Demotivated workers – Often have highly motivated lives – Experience higher rates of mental illness – Redefine and lower their goals 07906133649
  • 14. The social construction of motivation? • Social Influence – Individualism vs. religion, class, community – The American Dream • The media rhetoric – X-Factor, Dragon’s Den, The Apprentice – Winners and losers • The mundane reality – Stuck in middle management – Routine and boredom – Short-term successes 07906133649
  • 15. When Motivation Succeeds…. • Success? – 24 hour jobs (WFH, Mobiles, Laptops) – Devolving responsibility – Enlarged jobs • When motivation does not equal achievement = inadequacy • Identity control tied up in high performance (e.g. TQM) 07906133649
  • 16. Stress • Over-motivation? – – – – – • Highest motivated are the most stressed Workaholics: 1/3 of high-performers ‘addicted’ to work Hours, stress and insecurity are increasing 25% of men exhausted 20 of workers ‘extremely stressed’ Effects – 4% days taken off sick – Costs £13bn / years – ¾ executives report stress affects their health, happiness & home • Presented as a problem to be ‘managed’ – Stress management techniques – Counselling – You need stress • The ‘social construction’ of stress? – A 20th century phenomena – Primary goal = to be happy – No more hygiene needs? 07906133649
  • 17. Why ‘motivation’ and not ‘persuasion’?
  • 18. Questions?