The Competent Newborn: Milestones
• One word
Infants understand a LOT without being able to produce language.
• Harlows: Attachment
determined by contact
comfort, rather than food.
• (Attachment to an
inanimate object is not
sufficient for normal social
• Preoperational (near end of second year – ~7): Operation
= mental action
– Symbolic functioning
– Centration; egocentrism [next]
• Concrete Operations
• Formal Operations
– Love, shades of gray, values
– Development of primary and secondary sex characteristics.
– “The adolescent growth spurt”
– Girls begin their growth spurts earlier (approx. 2 years) and complete them
– By age 13, boys are taller on average.
• Cultural trends
• Secular trends shows earlier maturation (next slide)
• Physical changes > characterized by a gradual decline.
• Visual and auditory sensitivity declines, muscle strength
decreases, and reaction time
• Hormonal changes > menopause; marks the end of
• Decrease in estrogen production can lead to osteoporosis.
• increase in susceptibility to
• Dementia: degenerative,
• ~1/3 of 85+ may suffer from
• Erikson: integrity versus despair
– People who are unable to put their
life in perspective may experience
anger, bitterness, and despair.
Death, Dying, and Bereavement
• Elisabeth Kubler-Ross