Learning: a (relatively) permanent change in behavior–or the potential to make a response that occurs as a result of experience
Studied images, sensations, feelings
Classical Conditioning Learning occurs when a neutral stimulus (like a bell) becomes associated with a stimulus to which the learner has an automatic, inborn response (like salivation, or drooling).
Food (UCS) Salivation (UCR)
Puff of air Eye Blink
(US) (Elicits UR)
Food + Bell Salivation
US + CS Elicits UR
Neutral stimulus is presented just before the UCS
Neutral stimulus follows the UCS
Two fundamental criteria
Multiple pairings of UCS and neutral stimulus (CS) are necessary for an association to occur and for the CS to produce the conditioned response
The UCS and CS must be paired or presented in a timely manner in order for an association to form
Shock Freak out
(US) (Elicits UCR)
Shock + Metronome Freak out
US + CS Elicits UCR
Metronome Freak out
Several pairings during an acquisition phase lead to a situation in which the CS presented by itself elicits a conditioned response (CR).
UCS? UCR? CS? CR?
Acquisition Patterns UCS is presented at different percentages on trials
Second order conditioning
Bell + Salivation Salivation Will previous pairing make conditioning stronger or weaker?
Watson “ Let us limit ourselves to things that can be observed, and formulate laws concerning only those things. Now what can we observe? We can observe behavior–what the organism does or says.” Rosalie Raynor John B. Watson Applications
Drinking Pleasant Flgs
Antibuse + Alcohol Nausea
UCS + CS UCR
?? CS, UCS, UR, CR?? Applications
Grew out of Watson
Class Cond Op Cond
Elicits reflex Emits a behavior
Forms association Reward given
Response after Response before any presentation reward
Operant conditioning occurs when an organism operates on its environment to produce a change.
Law of Effect (Thorndike, 1905)
Consequences of a behavior increase (or decrease) the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
Behavior that is rewarded is repeated
Behavior that is not rewarded dies out
So, have we learned all of our behaviors because they have been rewarded?
B.F. Skinner (1938)
Behavior can be changed by manipulating the consequences of that behavior
Behavior that is reinforced tends to be repeated
Behavior that is not reinforced tends to die out.
Tested in the Skinner Box >
Shaping and the Skinner Box Organisms learn from the consequences of their behavior
Reinforcement increases the frequency of response
Positive reinforcers: presented after the target response
Negative reinforcers: withdrawn or taken away after the target response has been made.