Chapter 2 Psych 1 Online Stud

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  • Limbic system Group of interrelated subcortical structures involved in regulation of emotions and motivated behaviors such as hunger, thirst, aggression, and sexual behavior
  • Figure 2.21, Davis and Palladino, Psychology, p. 79.
  • Chapter 2 Psych 1 Online Stud

    1. 1.  Behavioral neuroscience > from several disciplines; how the nervous system is related to behavior; biological basis of behavior.  Concerned with: Sensing Processing Responding These processes of sensing, processing, and responding are used to interact with the environment. [next]
    2. 2. Specialized cells of nervous system that sense stimuli Receptors Sensation typically takes place in brain Brain sends messages to muscles to produce response
    3. 3. Natural Selection Survival of the fittest?
    4. 4. Central Nervous System • Brain • Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System 2-6
    5. 5.  The spinal cord is composed of sensory (afferent or ascending) and motor (efferent or descending) nerves.  Interneurons 27
    6. 6. •Olfactory •Optic •Oculomotor •Trochlear •Trigeminal •Abducens •Facial •Auditory-vestibular •Glossopharyngeal •Vagus •Spinal Accessory •Hypoglossal 2-8
    7. 7. 2-9
    8. 8. 2-10
    9. 9.  somatic division  autonomic division [next]  Reflex Arc 2-11
    10. 10.  Autonomic division > sympathetic division mobilizes the body's resources; parasympathetic division returns the body to a normal state of homeostasis. 2-12
    11. 11. 2-13
    12. 12. 2-14
    13. 13.  Acetylcholine (ACh)  Dopamine  Serotonin  Endorphins  Norepinephrine  Gamma amino butryic acid (GABA) After reading your text, why do researchers now suggest that solution to the problems of Parkinson’s disease is not administering dopamine? 2-15
    14. 14. Agonist Antagonist
    15. 15. Excitation • Inhibition •
    16. 16.  Neurotransmitters must be removed from the synapse before another signal can be transmitted.  Removal is accomplished either by destroying the neurotransmitter (breakdown) or by taking it back into the terminal buttons (reuptake). 2-18
    17. 17. Neuromodulators • Influence transmission of signals between neurons • Can have simultaneous effects on diverse brain regions • Facilitate release or inhibition of neurotransmitters 2-19
    18. 18.  Ions (electrically charged particles) are found on the inside and outside of the neuron's  semipermeable cell membrane When a neuron is in a resting state, more negative ions are on the inside of the cell (measured at -70 mV) than on the outside. 2-20
    19. 19. The reversal in electrical charge is known as an action potential. 2-21
    20. 20.  lmages of the structures • the PET (positron emission • • EEG • • tomography), Electroencephalograph (EEG) the CT or CAT (computerized axial tomography), the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and the fMRl (functional magnetic resonance imaging). 2-22
    21. 21. back of head front of head The image above is a PET scan of a patient with Broca's aphasia. 2-23
    22. 22. 2-24
    23. 23.  The brain is divided into the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain. 2-25
    24. 24. 2-26
    25. 25. Balance and movement 2-27
    26. 26. The midbrain, pons, and medulla lie on top of the spinal cord. Together they make up the brain stem. 2-28
    27. 27.  Millions of myelinated axons connecting the brain’s hemispheres 2-29
    28. 28. The forebrain consists of subcortical structures and the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex 2-30
    29. 29.  Motivation  Emotions 2-31
    30. 30.  The cerebral cortex covers the forebrain and is divided into four lobes: • frontal • Parietal • temporal • occipital 2-32
    31. 31. Visual center 233
    32. 32. Includes somatosensory cortex (input from environment) Helps process perceptions 234
    33. 33. •Hearing •Understanding language •Memory 235
    34. 34. You are who you are because of this lobe. •Personality •Emotions •Controlling judgment •Impulses •Sexual behavior •Using Language •Movement Motor Cortex 236
    35. 35. 237
    36. 36. Aphasia CAT Scan 238
    37. 37. Apraxia Loss or impairment of the ability to execute complex, coordinated movements (no impairment of the muscles or senses). Apraxia of lid opening (blepharospasm) 239
    38. 38. More About the Brain 240
    39. 39. 241
    40. 40. Patient is able to select object by touch from a group and identify it verbally. Patient is able to locate object by touch, but cannot identify it verbally.
    41. 41.  Endocrine system:  Hormones: • Secreted into the bloodstream 2-44

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