Chapter 2 Psych 1 Online Stud
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Chapter 2 Psych 1 Online Stud

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  • Limbic system Group of interrelated subcortical structures involved in regulation of emotions and motivated behaviors such as hunger, thirst, aggression, and sexual behavior
  • Figure 2.21, Davis and Palladino, Psychology, p. 79.

Chapter 2 Psych 1 Online Stud Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  Behavioral neuroscience > from several disciplines; how the nervous system is related to behavior; biological basis of behavior.  Concerned with: Sensing Processing Responding These processes of sensing, processing, and responding are used to interact with the environment. [next]
  • 2. Specialized cells of nervous system that sense stimuli Receptors Sensation typically takes place in brain Brain sends messages to muscles to produce response
  • 3. Natural Selection Survival of the fittest?
  • 4. Central Nervous System • Brain • Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System 2-6
  • 5.  The spinal cord is composed of sensory (afferent or ascending) and motor (efferent or descending) nerves.  Interneurons 27
  • 6. •Olfactory •Optic •Oculomotor •Trochlear •Trigeminal •Abducens •Facial •Auditory-vestibular •Glossopharyngeal •Vagus •Spinal Accessory •Hypoglossal 2-8
  • 7. 2-9
  • 8. 2-10
  • 9.  somatic division  autonomic division [next]  Reflex Arc 2-11
  • 10.  Autonomic division > sympathetic division mobilizes the body's resources; parasympathetic division returns the body to a normal state of homeostasis. 2-12
  • 11. 2-13
  • 12. 2-14
  • 13.  Acetylcholine (ACh)  Dopamine  Serotonin  Endorphins  Norepinephrine  Gamma amino butryic acid (GABA) After reading your text, why do researchers now suggest that solution to the problems of Parkinson’s disease is not administering dopamine? 2-15
  • 14. Agonist Antagonist
  • 15. Excitation • Inhibition •
  • 16.  Neurotransmitters must be removed from the synapse before another signal can be transmitted.  Removal is accomplished either by destroying the neurotransmitter (breakdown) or by taking it back into the terminal buttons (reuptake). 2-18
  • 17. Neuromodulators • Influence transmission of signals between neurons • Can have simultaneous effects on diverse brain regions • Facilitate release or inhibition of neurotransmitters 2-19
  • 18.  Ions (electrically charged particles) are found on the inside and outside of the neuron's  semipermeable cell membrane When a neuron is in a resting state, more negative ions are on the inside of the cell (measured at -70 mV) than on the outside. 2-20
  • 19. The reversal in electrical charge is known as an action potential. 2-21
  • 20.  lmages of the structures • the PET (positron emission • • EEG • • tomography), Electroencephalograph (EEG) the CT or CAT (computerized axial tomography), the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and the fMRl (functional magnetic resonance imaging). 2-22
  • 21. back of head front of head The image above is a PET scan of a patient with Broca's aphasia. 2-23
  • 22. 2-24
  • 23.  The brain is divided into the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain. 2-25
  • 24. 2-26
  • 25. Balance and movement 2-27
  • 26. The midbrain, pons, and medulla lie on top of the spinal cord. Together they make up the brain stem. 2-28
  • 27.  Millions of myelinated axons connecting the brain’s hemispheres 2-29
  • 28. The forebrain consists of subcortical structures and the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex 2-30
  • 29.  Motivation  Emotions 2-31
  • 30.  The cerebral cortex covers the forebrain and is divided into four lobes: • frontal • Parietal • temporal • occipital 2-32
  • 31. Visual center 233
  • 32. Includes somatosensory cortex (input from environment) Helps process perceptions 234
  • 33. •Hearing •Understanding language •Memory 235
  • 34. You are who you are because of this lobe. •Personality •Emotions •Controlling judgment •Impulses •Sexual behavior •Using Language •Movement Motor Cortex 236
  • 35. 237
  • 36. Aphasia CAT Scan 238
  • 37. Apraxia Loss or impairment of the ability to execute complex, coordinated movements (no impairment of the muscles or senses). Apraxia of lid opening (blepharospasm) 239
  • 38. More About the Brain 240
  • 39. 241
  • 40. Patient is able to select object by touch from a group and identify it verbally. Patient is able to locate object by touch, but cannot identify it verbally.
  • 41.  Endocrine system:  Hormones: • Secreted into the bloodstream 2-44