Chapter 2 Psych 1 Online Stud
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Chapter 2 Psych 1 Online Stud






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  • Limbic system Group of interrelated subcortical structures involved in regulation of emotions and motivated behaviors such as hunger, thirst, aggression, and sexual behavior
  • Figure 2.21, Davis and Palladino, Psychology, p. 79.

Chapter 2 Psych 1 Online Stud Chapter 2 Psych 1 Online Stud Presentation Transcript

  •  Behavioral neuroscience > from several disciplines; how the nervous system is related to behavior; biological basis of behavior.  Concerned with: Sensing Processing Responding These processes of sensing, processing, and responding are used to interact with the environment. [next]
  • Specialized cells of nervous system that sense stimuli Receptors Sensation typically takes place in brain Brain sends messages to muscles to produce response
  • Natural Selection Survival of the fittest?
  • Central Nervous System • Brain • Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System 2-6
  •  The spinal cord is composed of sensory (afferent or ascending) and motor (efferent or descending) nerves.  Interneurons 27
  • •Olfactory •Optic •Oculomotor •Trochlear •Trigeminal •Abducens •Facial •Auditory-vestibular •Glossopharyngeal •Vagus •Spinal Accessory •Hypoglossal 2-8
  • 2-9
  • 2-10
  •  somatic division  autonomic division [next]  Reflex Arc 2-11
  •  Autonomic division > sympathetic division mobilizes the body's resources; parasympathetic division returns the body to a normal state of homeostasis. 2-12
  • 2-13
  • 2-14
  •  Acetylcholine (ACh)  Dopamine  Serotonin  Endorphins  Norepinephrine  Gamma amino butryic acid (GABA) After reading your text, why do researchers now suggest that solution to the problems of Parkinson’s disease is not administering dopamine? 2-15
  • Agonist Antagonist
  • Excitation • Inhibition •
  •  Neurotransmitters must be removed from the synapse before another signal can be transmitted.  Removal is accomplished either by destroying the neurotransmitter (breakdown) or by taking it back into the terminal buttons (reuptake). 2-18
  • Neuromodulators • Influence transmission of signals between neurons • Can have simultaneous effects on diverse brain regions • Facilitate release or inhibition of neurotransmitters 2-19
  •  Ions (electrically charged particles) are found on the inside and outside of the neuron's  semipermeable cell membrane When a neuron is in a resting state, more negative ions are on the inside of the cell (measured at -70 mV) than on the outside. 2-20
  • The reversal in electrical charge is known as an action potential. 2-21
  •  lmages of the structures • the PET (positron emission • • EEG • • tomography), Electroencephalograph (EEG) the CT or CAT (computerized axial tomography), the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and the fMRl (functional magnetic resonance imaging). 2-22
  • back of head front of head The image above is a PET scan of a patient with Broca's aphasia. 2-23
  • 2-24
  •  The brain is divided into the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain. 2-25
  • 2-26
  • Balance and movement 2-27
  • The midbrain, pons, and medulla lie on top of the spinal cord. Together they make up the brain stem. 2-28
  •  Millions of myelinated axons connecting the brain’s hemispheres 2-29
  • The forebrain consists of subcortical structures and the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex 2-30
  •  Motivation  Emotions 2-31
  •  The cerebral cortex covers the forebrain and is divided into four lobes: • frontal • Parietal • temporal • occipital 2-32
  • Visual center 233
  • Includes somatosensory cortex (input from environment) Helps process perceptions 234
  • •Hearing •Understanding language •Memory 235
  • You are who you are because of this lobe. •Personality •Emotions •Controlling judgment •Impulses •Sexual behavior •Using Language •Movement Motor Cortex 236
  • 237
  • Aphasia CAT Scan 238
  • Apraxia Loss or impairment of the ability to execute complex, coordinated movements (no impairment of the muscles or senses). Apraxia of lid opening (blepharospasm) 239
  • More About the Brain 240
  • 241
  • Patient is able to select object by touch from a group and identify it verbally. Patient is able to locate object by touch, but cannot identify it verbally.
  •  Endocrine system:  Hormones: • Secreted into the bloodstream 2-44