Chapter 14 Psych 1 Online Stud


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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.
  • Chapter 14 Psych 1 Online Stud

    1. 1. Health Psychology Chapter 14
    2. 2. Health Psychology <ul><li>Health psychology is concerned with the social and psychological factors that influence health and illness. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Stress and Coping <ul><li>Define stress </li></ul><ul><li>A biological reaction to external events; hormones are released that cause a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Stress and Illness <ul><li>Stressors are demands that give rise to the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), which consists of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Stress and Illness <ul><li>Among the circumstances that could lead to stress are catastrophes, major life changes such as divorce, traumatic events and hassles. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with physiological responses such as increased levels of stress hormones </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of life change associated with Illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation often determines whether event is stressful. </li></ul>Schedule of Recent Experience: Social Readjustment Rating Scale:
    6. 6. Stress and Illness <ul><li>Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in aftermath of disturbing experience. </li></ul><ul><li>A reliving of the traumatic event in dreams, flashbacks, or intrusive thoughts. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Stress and Illness <ul><li>Everyday minor annoyances can accumulate and become associated with subsequent health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosomatic illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts </li></ul>
    8. 8. Stress/Perfomance Connection
    9. 9. Stress and Illness <ul><li>A wide variety of stressful events can affect immune system functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>These sometimes result in psychophysiological illnesses </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Differences in health among blacks and whites disappear when holding SES constant. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender also makes a difference in health. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Arthritis more common in men < 45; in women > 45 </li></ul></ul>Ethnic and Gender Variations in Health
    11. 11. Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk <ul><li>The number one cause of death in the United States is heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a strong association between men and heart disease. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Heart Disease in Middle Adulthood <ul><li>A) Modifiable Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>High Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>High Triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Low HDL Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>High Blood Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight or obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking / Chewing Tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Type A personality/ Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>B) Non Modifiable Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing age </li></ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul><ul><li>Family History </li></ul>
    13. 13. Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk <ul><li>Type A individuals tend to be aggressive, competitive, impatient, and have difficulty relaxing. </li></ul><ul><li>The Western Collaborative Group Study indicated that a Type A individual was twice as likely to develop heart disease as the more relaxed and easygoing Type B person. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent studies do not replicate this finding </li></ul><ul><li>Type H </li></ul>
    14. 15. Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk <ul><li>Efforts to change type A behavior reduced the rate of recurrent heart attacks as compared with the rate among victims who received typical heart patient counseling </li></ul>
    15. 16. Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk <ul><li>AIDS is now the 19 th leading cause of death in the United States (5th among 35-44 yr-olds). </li></ul><ul><li>Stress speeds onset of symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS cases among men is substantially higher than the number of cases among women. </li></ul>
    16. 17. Lifestyle Influences on Disease Risk <ul><li>Men and women differ in their likelihood of being exposed to infection with HIV. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Coping With Stress <ul><li>Physical activity is associated with increased longevity and positive benefits on physical and psychological health. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Coping With Stress <ul><li>Hardiness </li></ul><ul><li>Outlook </li></ul><ul><li>Distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Social Support </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of humor </li></ul>