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Chapter 11 Psych 1 Online Stud

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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.

Transcript

  • 1. Personality Chapter 11
  • 2. Analyzing Personality
    • Personality: a stable pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving
      • distinguishes one person from another.
    • Two important components:
      • distinctiveness
      • relative consistency.
  • 3. Analyzing Personality (p. 462)
    • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    • California Psychological Inventory (CPI).
  • 4.  
  • 5. Trait Approaches
    • Gordon Allport
    • Cattell (next)
      • Used computers
      • Surface traits
      • Source traits
    • Eysenck (next)
  • 6. Trait Approaches
    • Raymond Cattell proposed 16 source traits to describe personality and make predictions of future behaviors.
    16PF5 – Personality Factors
  • 7. Trait Approaches
    • Extraversion has been associated with a number of differences in everyday behavior.
  • 8. Biological Factors in Personality
    • The study of identical twins reared apart allows us to identify the effects of heredity independently of the influence of environmental factors.
    Heredity plays a role in a wide range of personality characteristics
  • 9. The Psychodynamic Perspective
    • Freud
      • Easily the most influential theorist of modern psychology
      • Suggested that behaviors, feelings, and thoughts result from past events.
      • Because this psychic determinism occurs at an unconscious level, we are often unaware of the true reasons for our behavior.
  • 10. The Psychodynamic Perspective
    • Freud review
      • early childhood experiences
      • stage theory of development
      • potential importance of unconscious experiences
      • influence of sexuality on human behavior
  • 11. Freud’s view of the human mind: The mental iceberg
  • 12. The Psychodynamic Perspective
    • Conflicts among the structures of the mind occur beneath the level of conscious awareness.
  • 13. The Psychodynamic Perspective
    • Unconscious conflict produces anxiety or guilt that warns the ego.
    • The ego uses defense mechanisms to protect itself from the anxiety or guilt.
  • 14. Defense Mechanisms
    • Displacement
    • Sublimation
    • Projection
    • Reaction formation
    • Repression
    • Denial
    • Intellectualization
    • Rationalization
  • 15. The Psychodynamic Perspective
    • Neo-Freudians
      • Jung
      • Horney
      • Adler
      • disagreed with a number of Freud's views (for example, those emphasizing the sexual and unconscious roots of behavior).
  • 16. The Behavioral Perspective
    • Behavioral and learning psychologists avoid commonly used terms such as traits.
    • Distinctiveness of a person's behavior results from unique learning history.
      • Aggressiveness
      • Shyness
      • Kindness
      • Conscientiousness
      • Openness
  • 17. The Social-Cognitive Perspective
    • Julian Rotter and Albert Bandura incorporated cognitive factors.
  • 18. The Social-Cognitive Perspective
    • Albert Bandura: reciprocal determinism
  • 19. The Social-Cognitive Perspective
    • Self-efficacy: a person's judgment about his or her ability to succeed in a given situation.
    • Unlike a trait, self-efficacy is specific to the situation and can change over time.
  • 20. The Humanistic Perspective
    • People are not governed by their past
    • Human beings are basically good
    • We are directed toward development and growth.
    Basic needs have a powerful pull on behavior .
  • 21.
    • Begins with deficiency needs and leads to self-actualization at the top .
    • Power of deficiency needs keeps most people from reaching the level of self-actualization;
    • Maslow: doing the best that an individual is capable of doing.
    • Self Actualization: “The full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, potentialites.”
    Hierarchy of Needs
  • 22. The Humanistic Perspective
    • On the basis of his work with disturbed people, Carl Rogers concluded that efforts to achieve personal fulfillment were being stifled.
    • Self-concepts become distorted by conditions of worth imposed from the outside.
    • Healthy: real self-concept is consistent with ideal self-concept