Chapter 1 Psych 1 Online Stud


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  • Case Study Goal: Use information obtained from one person to understand behaviors of others+ = depth of analysis; - = not necessarily generalizable; costN.O. = Disadvantage: Effort needed to ensure observation does not affect the behaviors observed and recorded
  • For example, psychologists must maintain high standards of competence in their work, including recognizing the limitations of their expertise. They also must show respect for the rights and dignity of people, such as rights to privacy and confidentiality.The ethical guidelines for conducting research require that all research proposals be reviewed to ensure compliance with the guidelines. Each proposal must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) established by a college, university, or other organization where research is conducted.The ethical guidelines state that psychologists who conduct research using human participants must ensure that they are protected from physical and psychological harm. The ethical guidelines also require that any research records associated with a person’s name or identity be kept confidential.
  • A group of psychologists who termed their approach Gestalt psychology, which was noted for emphasizing that perception of a whole differs from that of the individual stimuli that make up the whole, spearheaded the challenge to the structuralists’ notion that conscious experience could be broken down into elements.The key members of this group were Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, and Kurt Koffka.
  • both normal and abnormal behaviors are determined primarily by unconscious forces
  • focused on observable behavior and emphasized learned nature of behavior
  • Charles Darwin, who popularized the theory of evolution, maintained that evolution unfolds according to the principle of natural selection,which states that the strongest or most fit organisms are those that have adapted best to their environment.
  • Figure 1.5, Davis and Palladino, 7e, p. 33As we have seen, psychologists represent a number of different specialty areas. Members of the American Psychological Association can be divided into several major groups. Those listed as Health Service Providers include clinical, counseling, school, and health psychologists. Research psychologists include industrial/organizational, developmental, social, and educational psychologists.source: Current Major Field of APA Members by Membership Status, 2009.
  • See p. 37 in text (Table 1.5)
  • Chapter 1 Psych 1 Online Stud

    1. 1. INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY Ron Mossler, Ph.D. Los Angeles Valley College
    2. 2. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY  Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.  It is both scientific and applied Describe, predict and control behavior Goals of psychology Accomplished by using scientific method
    3. 3. RESEARCH METHODS      Case study and interviews Survey/Questionnaires – representative sample? Naturalistic Observation Operational definition – replication Correlational research 1-3
    4. 4. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY Correlational research tells whether the values of two variables are related. Can be used to predict, but IT DOES NOT SHOW CAUSALITY! 1-4
    5. 5. THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD How do changes in one variable affect another? Independent variable(The IV) Dependent variable (the DV) In the experimental method, we manipulate the IV to determine the effect on the DV 1-5
    6. 6. THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Compare outcomes of: Experimental group Control group Know: Extraneous variables Bias 1-6
    7. 7. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY Manipulation of the IV (the cause) determines whether it influences the DV (the effect) 1-7
    8. 8. THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Single blind vs. double blind Placebo effect 1-8
    9. 9. REVIEW You want to study the effect of alcohol consumption in America on driving deaths. You find that from 1930 until 1995 there was an extremely strong correlation C AU S A L I T Y (.93).  What conclusions can you make? Does increased alcohol consumption cause an increase in auto fatalities? Why or why not? ? Alcohol Consumption Driving Deaths 1-9
    10. 10. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY  Statistics > the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. • Descriptive statistics > summarize data. • Inferential statistics > are results of an experiment significant? 1-10
    11. 11. NORMAL CURVE 1-11
    12. 12. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY APA ETHICAL GUIDELINES Psychologists must ensure: •Protection from harm •Confidentiality •Voluntary participation •Deception and intimidation
    13. 13. THE ORIGINS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY  Wilhelm Wundt – first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879  Wundt > structuralism.  Student, Edward Titchener brought Wundt’s type of psychology to U.S. = Structuralism; dev’d ―introspection‖ 1-13
    14. 14. THE ORIGINS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY  William James – functionalism; not structure, but what the mind does, and why.  Concerned with consciousness—what the mind does and why  Like a flowing stream  The study of ―mental life‖  Now ~cognition 1-14
    15. 15. THE ORIGINS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY Gestalt psychology •challenge to structuralists’ notion that conscious experience could be broken down into elements
    16. 16. THE ORIGINS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY THE RISE OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY Sigmund Freud: Influenced by the unconscious. • Psychodynamic/ psychoanalytic Freud's granddaughter Sophie (a doctor in her own right), on Freudian theory: "I think it's such a narcissistic indulgence that I cannot believe in it." 1-16
    18. 18. IVAN PAVLOV 1-18
    19. 19. WATSON/B.F. SKINNER Skinner Box 1-19
    20. 20. THE ORIGINS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY THE RISE OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY The Humanistic Perspective  Abraham Maslow  Carl Rogers 1-20
    21. 21. THE ORIGINS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY Physiological perspective; Cognitive Neuropsychology •Underlying biological foundation for all forms of behavior •Functioning of brain and nervous system
    22. 22. THE ORIGINS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY Cognitive perspective •How thought occurs, how memories work, how information is organized and stored
    23. 23. THE ORIGINS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY Evolutionary perspective
    25. 25. WHAT DO YOU THINK? What do psychology majors do after college?
    26. 26. PSYCHOLOGICAL SPECIALTIES CLINICAL AND COUNSELING  Difference between a psychologist ( Ph.D or Psy.D). and a psychiatrist (M.D.)  School Psychologist/PPS  Consumer  Human Factors - (ergonomics)  Health (including occupational health and EAPs)  Sports  Forensic - memory, sanity, competence  Developmental – growth, dev’t, change  Neuropsychologists –trained to diagnose brain dx  MSW/LCSW  M.A./MFT 1-26
    27. 27. PSYCHOLOGICAL SPECIALTIES AND CAREERS  Research Psychologists  IO I Assess basic Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other characteristics to perform a job. Testing of job applicants, accommodation O  Social process of work  Consumer  Human Factors - design equipment and machines (ergonomics)  Health (including occupational health and EAPs)  Sports  Forensic - memory, sanity, competence  Developmental – growth, dev’t, change [?] 1-27