Lifespan Chapters 15 17 Online Stud
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Lifespan Chapters 15 17 Online Stud

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    Lifespan Chapters 15 17 Online Stud Lifespan Chapters 15 17 Online Stud Presentation Transcript

    • Aging Death and Dying Chapters 15-17
    • Successful Aging
      • Living longer
      • Positive Aging
      • X Cult
    • Life Span and Life Expectancy
      • has increased 31 years since 1900
      • average U.S. life expectancy = 77.6 years
      • women outlive males an average of 5 years
    • Successful Aging
    • Biological Theories of Aging
      • Cellular Clock Theory
        • as we age, cells become less capable of dividing
        • telomeres -- DNA sequences that cap chromosomes
        • as cells divide, telomeres become shorter and eventually cell can no longer divide
      • Free Radical Theory -- people age because as cells metabolize energy, the byproducts include unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals
        • damages DNA
        • can lead to disorders such as cancer and arthritis
      • Hormonal Stress Theory -- aging in the body’s hormone system can lower resistance to stress and increase likelihood of disease = risk of chronic disease
      Biological Theories of Aging
    • Sensory Developments
      • Inevitable
      • Vision
        • visual acuity, color vision, and depth perception decline
          • cataracts -- thickening of lens
          • glaucoma -- optic nerve damaged by pressure from fluid build-up
          • macular degeneration -- deterioration of retina
      • Hearing
        • degeneration of cochlea
      • Smell and taste
        • most older adults lose some ability to taste and/or smell
    • Changes in:
      • Sexuality
      • Hypertension
      • Arthritis
    • Other Health Issues
      • Major depression
        • Increase in the oldest old (85 and older)
        • Sometimes associated with drug side effect/interaction!
      • Parkinson’s disease -- chronic, progressive. Muscle tremors, slowing of movement, partial facial paralysis
        • Degeneration of neurons that produce dopamine
      • Dementia -- global term > neurological disorder; deterioration of mental functioning
    • Causes of Alzheimer’s Disease
      • Alzheimer’s -- progressive, irreversible; gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, physical function
      • No certain scientific proof of causes. Associated with:
        • Age
        • Genetic links seem to exist
        • Lack of exercise
    • Alzheimer’s Disease
      • < 65: less than 2%; ~doubles every 5 years
      • Symptoms
        • Inattention
        • Disoriented
        • Altered Py
        • Difficulty articulating
        • Impaired gait/movement
      • Kills ~100,000/yr in U.S.
    • Leading Causes of Death
      • Heart disease
      • Cancer
      • Stroke
      • Chronic lung diseases
    • Other issues
      • Arthritis -- inflammation of the joints, accompanied by pain, stiffness, and movement problems
      • Osteoporosis -- can reduce/reverse effects
      • Sexuality
      • Declines in memory
      • Exercise > maintain independence, prevents institutionalization, increases longevity
    • Training Cognitive Skills
      • Training can improve the cognitive skills of many older adults
      • There is some loss of plasticity in late adulthood, especially in those older than 85 years
      • Cognitive vitality can be improved with training
      • Lack of use of working memory may cause neural connections in prefrontal lobes to atrophy
    • Work
      • Older workers have a lower rate of absenteeism, fewer accidents, and increased job satisfaction
      • Best adjustment for those who are
        • healthy
        • have adequate income
        • active
        • educated
        • have an extended social network
        • satisfied with life before retirement
    • Socioemotional Dev’t
      • Integrity versus despair
      • Life review
      • Social convoy model -- individuals go through life embedded in a social network of individuals from whom they give and receive social support
        • Social support enhances coping skills
        • Being lonely and socially isolated is a significant health risk
    • Living Arrangements
      • Nursing Home
      • Hospice care - palliative
      • Adult day-care
      • Assisted living/retirement hotel
      • Continuing-care facility (combination skilled nursing/assisted living/convalescent
    • Elder Abuse
      • Less healthy
      • More isolated
      • Those with dementias particularly at risk
      • More likely to be living in caregiver’s house
      • Types of Abuse (what to look for outside of the obvious)
        • $
        • Cuts, scars
        • Bedsores
        • Food, water
        • Underclothes, hygiene (check for odors)
        • Physical activity
        • Social opportunities
    •  
    • Legal Documents
        • Living will
        • Health care proxy OR >
        • Medical Power of Attorney allows you to designate someone to make health care decisions for you when you are unable .
        • Power of Attorney
        • Will
        • Living Trust
    • DNR Medical personnel should not go to extraordinary or extreme efforts to save the terminally ill patient. However…
      • Difficult to define.
      • No one likes to make this decision
      • Sometimes difficult to get medical personnel to follow directives:
        • Claim unawareness of wishes.
        • Intentionally left off chart by MDs.
      • Survey of dying patients:
        • 1/3 asked not to be resuscitated; only 47% of physicians reported knowing their patient’s wishes.
        • Only listed on the charts of 49% of patients.
    • What constitutes death?
    • Defining Death
      • Thanatology-the study of death and dying
      • Complex
      • Functional death: the absence of a heartbeat and breathing.
      • Medical measure of death > no possibility of restoring brain function
    • Death Across the Lifespan: Causes & Reactions
      • SIDS
      • Prenatal death (Miscarriage) also; often feel isolated
      • Children do not have a realistic view of death.
      • Before age 5, children see death as temporary, like sleeping.
      • ~ 5 children have begun to accept death as universal and final
    • Death in Adolescence
      • Adolescents’ views of death are also unrealistic & often highly romantic.
        • Personal Fable: leads to sense of invulnerability
      • The most frequent cause of adolescent death is accidents (usually motor vehicle).
    • Death in Young Adulthood
      • Particularly difficult because it is the time when people feel most ready to begin their own lives.
      • Future planning (e.g., marry or not? have children?).
      • Like adolescents, young adults are outraged at impending death and may direct anger toward their care providers.
    • Death in Middle Adulthood
      • Disease is the most common cause of death in middle-aged adults.
      • More aware and accepting of death but also have a lot of fears (more than any other time in lifespan).
      • Most frequent causes are heart attack or stoke - both of which are sudden.
    • Death in Late Adulthood
      • The prevalence of death and loss around older adults makes them less anxious about dying than at any other time of life.
      • Suicide rate increases with age for men.
      • Caucasian men over age 85 have the highest proportion of suicide.
      • Major issues for seniors with terminal disease:
        • Do lives still have value?
        • How much of a burden?
    • Kubler-Ross
      • Stage theory of death and dying was created from extensive interviews with people that were dying and those that cared for them
      • Widows outnumber widowers 5 to 1
      • Many widows are lonely
      • Bereaved are at higher risk for health problems
      • Stories
      • Recordings
      End of Life Issues