Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
4,539
On Slideshare
4,527
From Embeds
12
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
579
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 12

http://www.slideshare.net 12

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 9-1
  • 2. I. Physical Development A. Physical MaturationExtreme changes in height and weight are common The adolescent growth spurt 9-2
  • 3. 1. PubertyIs not adolescence but marks “beginning.” Which ends first? Why? Sexual organs mature Androgens Estrogens Menarche Cultural trends Secular trends Timing and reciprocal determinism 9-3
  • 4. 9-4
  • 5. 2. Primary Sex Characteristics–The organs and structures related to sex and reproduction Contrast with secondary sex characteristics: Visible signs of maturity [?] 9-5
  • 6. 3. Sexual MaturationThe changes in sexual maturation that occur for males and females during early adulthood. Interaction of the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the gonads 9-6
  • 7. 4. Secondary Sex CharacteristicsFemale Male • Deposition of fat in the breasts; in • Longer, heavier bones buttocks and thighs • Larger muscles • Broadening of the pelvic hip bones. • Thicker, tougher skin • Deep voice • Dev’t of soft and smooth skin. • Body hair, esp on face and • Pubic hair and armpit hair. chest • Onset of menstruation • Development of pubic hair • Maturation of ovaRole:• Produce ova and receive sperm• Carry fetus to full term How is body image related to timing of puberty for boys/girls? 9-7
  • 8. 5. Reproductive Systems DifferentiationTake note of analogous structures 9-8
  • 9. Reproductive Systems 9-9
  • 10. B. Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During AdolescenceFocus on food and eating disorders become morecommon during adolescence. 9-10
  • 11. Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During AdolescencePsychological consequences ofadolescent obesityPotential health consequences High blood pressure; diabetes; 70- 80% will become obese adults. 9-11
  • 12. C. Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder 9-12
  • 13. C. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Warning Signs? 9-13
  • 14. Eating Disorders: TreatmentInvolves multiple approaches. Psychotherapy Cognitive-behavioral techniques Dietary modifications Stress management 9-14
  • 15. II. Brain Development 9-15
  • 16. Brain Development 9-16
  • 17. Brain Development 9-17
  • 18. III. Cognitive Development and SchoolingA. Piaget and Formal Operations• Abstract; logical; full of idealism and possibilities Hypothetico-deductive reasoning – a general theory leads to deductive explanations (hypothesis > deduction of implications) Propositional thought (next) 9-18
  • 19. Evaluating Piaget’s Approach Universal? Continuous? Underestimated skills Piaget focused only on thinking and knowing, missing other kinds of intelligence.Contrast Piaget with?… 9-19
  • 20. B. Information Processing PerspectivesExecutive functioning.metacognition 9-20
  • 21. C. Adolescent Egocentrism• Increase in self-consciousness• Elkind (1976): • Personal fable • Imaginary audience 9-21
  • 22. D. School PerformanceWhile cognitive abilitiesincrease, school performancetends to decline. Why?Strong relationship betweeneducational achievement and(SES) 9-22
  • 23. High School Graduation RatesThe U.S. had highgraduation rates,but those rates aredroppingcompared to other industrializednations. 9-23
  • 24. 9-24
  • 25. Achievement Test Results Other Factors 9-25
  • 26. Achievement Test Results National Assessment of Educational Progress 9-26
  • 27. Achievement Test Results National Assessment of Educational Progress 9-27
  • 28. Achievement Test Results National Assessment of Educational Progress 9-28
  • 29. Achievement Test Results National Assessment of Educational Progress 9-29
  • 30. Achievement Test Results http://dailynews.com/search/ci_3158580 9-30
  • 31. Achievement Test Results http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-schools28mar28,1,2485838.story?page=2 9-31
  • 32. IV. Issues in Adolescent HealthA. Exercise, nutrition Behaviors linked to poor health habits and early death in adults often begin during adolescence Early behavior patterns Change has immediate health benefits Change also delays or prevents disability and mortality Compared to other countries > less active, more junk food, more fried food, less fruits and vegetables. Half of teenagers get inadequate sleep > cranky, irritable, fall asleep in school, dep’d, more caffeine than past generations; some evidence of hormonal changes due to changes in circadian rhythms. 9-32
  • 33. IV. Issues in AdolescentB. Drugs Health Almost 20 % of eighth graders and close to 40 % of seniors said they had smoked marijuana at least once in the last year. More than half of high school seniors have used an illegal drug at least once in their lives. Use has been declining since late 90s 9-33
  • 34. Threats to Adolescent Well-Being 9-34
  • 35. C. Alcohol~75% of high school students reported having consumed an alcoholic drink in the past year~75% of college students report that they have consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the last 30 days. 40+% have had 5+ drinks in the last 2 weeks 16% drink 16 or more drinks each week. 9-35
  • 36. C. Alcohol~75% of high school students reported having consumed an alcoholic drink in the past year~75% of college students report that they have consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the last 30 days. 40+% have had 5+ drinks in the last 2 weeks 16% drink 16 or more drinks each week. 9-36
  • 37. Alcohol Binge drinking 5+ for men; 4 for women. ~50% of male college students & ~40% of females in the previous 2 weeks.“A University of Michigan student died this morningafter drinking 20 shots of whiskey in tenminutes…”“Nine students were hospitalized with BAC levelsranging from .12 to .35 percent.” 9-37
  • 38. Binge Drinking College students 9-38
  • 39. Addiction 9-39
  • 40. Parents and peersFactors related to increased use: Drinking before age 14 Not having positive relationships with parents and other mentor figures Friends who use substances 9-40
  • 41. D. Tobacco Use peaked in mid 90s and has gradually declined.Reported daily smoking:2.7% 8th graders11.2% 12th 9-41
  • 42. E. Sexually Transmitted DiseasesAbout 25% of sexually active teensAIDSChlamydiaGenital Warts(human papilloma virus)Genital HerpesTrichomoniasisGonorrheaSyphilis (next) 9-42
  • 43. SyphilisThird most common STD (after gonorrhea andChlamydiaCongenital syphilis in the United States 9-43
  • 44. AIDS 9-44
  • 45. AIDS Around the World 9-45
  • 46. AIDS Around the World 9-46
  • 47. AIDS Around the World 9-47
  • 48. PreventionUse condoms.Avoid high risk behaviors.Know your partner’s sexualhistory.Consider abstinence? 9-48
  • 49. Homicide 9-49
  • 50. HomicideTrends in Homicide Rates Among Persons Ages 10-24 Years, by Race/Ethnicity, 1991–2007 9-50
  • 51. Mental Health Issues [and next]Depression• Girls consistently higher rates than boys• Family factors [?] increase risk• Problems in romantic relationships increase risk 9-51
  • 52. Suicide 3rd leading cause of teenage deathEscalates in adolescence and young adulthood 1. Withdrawal from contact with others 2. Sudden swings in mood 3. Recent occurrence of a life crisis or emotional shock 4. Personality change 5. Gift-giving of cherished belongings 6. Depression and helplessness 7. Aggression and/or risk taking 8. Threats to commit suicide 9-52
  • 53. SuicideGirls > Boys; Girls < Boys 9-53
  • 54. Suicide 9-54
  • 55. Suicide 9-55