Lifespan Chapter 6 Online Stud
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  • 1. Chapter 6Social and Personality Development in the Preschool Years © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing 1
  • 2. Self-Understanding andForming a Sense of Self  Psychosocial Development 8-2
  • 3. Erikson: Initiative vs. guilt ~3 to 6: Conflict b/t independence of action and sometimes negative results of that action. 8-3
  • 4. Discipline 8-4
  • 5. Self Concept in the School Years: Thinking About the Self What is self? Children typically overestimate their skills and knowledge 8-5
  • 6. Developing racial, ethnic andgender awareness Gender is well established Gender > ethnicity 8-6
  • 7. What are some possible explanations? 8-7
  • 8. Theoretical explanations for gender related attitudes  Biological perspectives  Psychoanalytic perspectives  Social-learning/Cognitive approaches  Includes parental/cutlural influences 8-8
  • 9. Friends and Family: The social lives of preschoolersIncreased interactions with the world at large. ~ 3 children begin to develop real friendships; individuals with special qualities. Friendship is focused on the carrying out of shared activities [as opposed to?] 8-9
  • 10. Playing by Rules Parallel play Associative play Cooperative play Sensorimotor play practice play pretense/symbolic play social play constructive play games 8-10
  • 11. Fantasy Play Play becomes increasingly unrealistic during the preschool period What would Vygotsky say about the increase in pretend play? 8-11
  • 12. Effective Parenting: Teaching DesiredBehaviors Diana Baumrind (1971, 1980); parenting styles:• Authoritarian• Authoritative• Permissive/Indulgent• Neglectful Democratic 8-12
  • 13. 8-13
  • 14. Lower SES parents  children conform to society’s expectations  home atmosphere > authority  Inc physical punishment  more directive, less conversational  As opposed to… 8-14
  • 15. Higher-SES parents more concerned with developing initiative and delay of gratification atmosphere in which children are more nearly equal participants rules are discussed less directive; more conversational 8-15
  • 16. Child Abuse and MaltreatmentWhat kinds of abuse? 8-16
  • 17. Types of Child Abuse 8-17
  • 18. Child Abuse Occurs in any home, though most frequent in stressful family environments:  Poverty  Single-parent homes  Families with high levels of marital discord  70% DO NOT grow up to abuse 8-18
  • 19. Moral Development and Aggression Piaget Social Learning Kohlberg Gilligan 8-19
  • 20. Piaget’s View of Moral Development Heteronomous Morality: Initial stage, ~4 to 7 years old.  Rules are invariant and unchangeable.  Immanent Justice: Immediate punishment. 8-20
  • 21. Piaget’s View of Moral Development Incipient Cooperation ~ 7 to 10.  Children are more social and learn the rules.  Play is according to a shared conception of the rules. 8-21
  • 22. Piaget’s View of Moral Development ~ 10: Autonomous Cooperation  aware that game rules can be modified if players agree. Critics: He underestimated the age at which childrens moral skills develop. 8-22
  • 23. Moral Development in Children:Social-learning approaches How environment influences childrens moral behavior. • Children model prosocial (helping) behavior Reinforcement and modeling. 8-23
  • 24. Viewing Violence on TV  Conducting a true experiment nearly impossible  Correlational studies difficult Does television viewing cause violence? 8-24