Lifespan Chapter 5-Online Stud


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Lifespan Chapter 5-Online Stud

  1. 1. 5-1 Chapter 5 Physical and Cognitive Development in the Early Childhood (Pre-School) Years
  2. 2. 5-2 Development during the Preschool Years
  3. 3. 5-3 Physical Development Girls slightly smaller and lighter than boys during these years [next] Body fat also shows a slow, steady decline Environmental experiences urban, middle-SES, and firstborn children tend to be taller than rural, lower-SES, and later-born children Brain material in some areas can nearly double in a year [next]
  4. 4. 5-4 Relative growth of synapses and dendrites
  5. 5. 5-5 Physical Development: Height & Weight
  6. 6. 5-6
  7. 7. 5-7 Motor Development: 2-3 Years • Less tripping • Running, Hopping, Jumping • Walk up and down stairs alone • Balance on one foot for a few seconds; stand on tip toes • Can throw and kick balls • Can walk on a balance beam Gross Motor Fine Motor • Can “draw,” including copying lines and circles • Can cut with scissors • Can string beads (supervised!) or popcorn • Can take things apart and put them back together (e.g., jars, lids, toys, boxes, stacks)
  8. 8. 5-8 Nutrition: Feeding the Preschooler
  9. 9. 5-9 Weight and Health Categories determined by body mass index (BMI) More overweight young children By age 5 Type II diabetes associated with lower S-E More fruit juice associated with higher incidence of Type II diabetes
  10. 10. 5-10 Diabetes Prevalence
  11. 11. 5-11
  12. 12. 5-12 Health & Illness During the Preschool Years The majority of children in the United States are reasonably healthy. Average American child > common cold is the most frequent (and most severe) illness. Poor nutrition associated with low income Nutrition linked to cognitive and physical growth Underfed children > often less supervised, less stimulated, and less educated Health Problems in Elementary School
  13. 13. 5-13
  14. 14. 5-14 Dangers that Preschoolers Face High levels of physical activity (they can get around on their own now). Poison, drowning in tub (~350/yr)/pools (~250/yr), falls, burns (2nd most common among preschoolers) falls poisoning Boys have higher injury rates. Economic and ethnic differences Poverty = 2x higher risk Cultural differences in supervision, gender roles Head injury is leading cause of death for preschoolers Motor vehicle accidents account for 38% (2011), but…
  15. 15. 5-15 Socioeconomic Status Health status of children correlates with income “Approximately 11 million U.S. preschool children are malnourished and have lowered resistance to diseases” (Howell, Pettit, & Kingsley, 2005; Ramey, Ramey, & Lanzi, 2006) (Olson, Tang, & Newacheck, 2005) How are data collected? In 2009 census, only 21 million under 5 total.
  16. 16. 5-16 Handedness Historically, left-handers were forced to write with their right hand Origin of handedness genetic right-handedness is dominant in all cultures Left-handers more likely to have reading problems tend to have better visual-spatial skills Left-handedness more common than expected among mathematicians, musicians, architects, and artists
  17. 17. 5-17 Motor Development: 4 - 6 Years • Rides a tricycle • More coordinated hopping, jumping, skipping • Throw and catch balls • Swing on a swing with pumping • Climbs ladders; uses slide independently • Runs around obstacles seamlessly • Skates • Jumps rope • More or less accident prone? Gross Motor
  18. 18. 5-18 Motor Development: 4 - 6 Years Fine Motor • Can “copy” figures • Can cut with scissors on a line • Brushes teeth; combs hair, washes, dresses • Prints letters and numbers • Establishes hand preference • Laces and then ties shoes • Colors within lines • Cuts and pastes • Uses mouse on computer accurately
  19. 19. 5-19 Cognitive Changes: Intellectual Development Begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings Use of concepts; mental reasoning Egocentrism and magical beliefs Child does not yet perform operations > reversible mental actions Characterized by symbolic thinking Piaget’s Preoperational Stage: 2 to 7
  20. 20. 5-20 Hart and Risley (1995) Economic level a significant factor in amount of parental interactions types of language children were exposed to kinds of language used. Poverty related to lower IQ scores by age five. The longer children live in poverty, the more severe the consequences.
  21. 21. 5-21 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage CENTRATION - concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects. Demonstrated centration by experiments with CONSERVATION
  22. 22. 5-22 Egocentric Thought The inability to take the perspective of others; takes two forms:
  23. 23. 5-23 Preoperational Thought: Intuitive Thought Substage B/T ~4 and 7 Primitive reasoning and many questions Questions signal the emergence of interest in reasoning and in figuring out why things are the way they are “Intuitive” b/c children seem sure about their knowledge and understanding
  24. 24. 5-24 Critics of Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development (revisited) Piaget underestimated capabilities. Cognition develops in a continuous manner, not in stages. Training can improve performance in conservation tasks. Focused too much on the deficiencies of young children's thought.
  25. 25. 5-25 Vygotsky’s Theory Social constructivist approach ZPD -- zone of proximal development scaffolding Which child has a larger ZPD?
  26. 26. 5-26 Do improved language abilities in preschoolers lead to improvements in thinking ability, or is it the reverse?
  27. 27. 5-27 Differential Language Exposure
  28. 28. 5-28 Teaching Strategies Based on Vygotsky’s Theory Assess the child’s ZPD Use ZPD in teaching Use more-skilled peers as teachers Monitor and encourage children’s use of private speech (Private speech facilitates learning) Place instruction in a meaningful context
  29. 29. 5-29 Comparing Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories Vygotsky’s emphasis on the importance of inner speech in development Students need many opportunities to learn with a teacher and more-skilled peers Piaget’s view that such speech is immature Children need support to explore their world and discover knowledge
  30. 30. 5-30 Review Page 151/134
  31. 31. 5-31 Criticizing Vygotsky Overemphasized role of language in thinking Emphasis on collaboration and guidance has potential pitfalls: Facilitators might be too helpful Some children might become lazy and expect help when they might have done something on their own
  32. 32. 5-32 Information-Processing Approach Attention -- the focusing of cognitive resources Memory -- the retention of information over time
  33. 33. 5-33 (1) Understanding of Numbers
  34. 34. 5-34 Early childhood and TV • 40% of 3-month-olds • 90% of 2-yr-olds • median age > 9 mos
  35. 35. 5-35 Television How does television affect cognitive dev’t of preschoolers?
  36. 36. 5-36 Television: learning from the media?
  37. 37. 5-37 ECE Three-quarters of children in U.S. are enrolled in some kind of care outside the home. What makes for successful ECE?
  38. 38. 5-38 Is Head Start Successful?
  39. 39. 5-39 Head Start Funding
  40. 40. 5-40