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Lifespan Chapter 5-Online Stud






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    Lifespan Chapter 5-Online Stud Lifespan Chapter 5-Online Stud Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 5Physical and Cognitive Development in theEarly Childhood (Pre-School) Years 5-1
    • Development during the Preschool Years 5-2
    • Physical DevelopmentGirlsslightlysmaller and lighter than boysduring these years [next]Body fat also shows a slow, steadydeclineEnvironmental experiences urban, middle-SES, and firstborn children tend to be taller than rural, lower-SES, and later-born childrenBrain material in some areas can nearlydouble in a year [next] 5-3
    • Relative growth ofsynapses and dendrites 5-4
    • Physical Development: Height & Weight 5-5
    • 5-6
    • Motor Development: 2-3 YearsGross Motor • Less tripping • Running, Hopping, Jumping • Walk up and down stairs alone • Balance on one foot for a few seconds; stand on tip toes • Can throw and kick balls • Can walk on a balance beamFine Motor • Can “draw,” including copying lines and circles • Can cut with scissors • Can string beads (supervised!) or popcorn • Can take things apart and put them back together (e.g., jars, lids, toys, boxes, stacks) 5-7
    • Nutrition: Feeding the Preschooler 5-8
    • Weight and HealthCategories determined by body mass index(BMI)More overweight young children By age 5 Type II diabetes associated with lower S-EMore fruit juice associatedwith higher incidence ofType II diabetes 5-9
    • Diabetes Prevalence 5-10
    • 5-11
    • Health & Illness During the Preschool YearsThe majority of children in the United States arereasonably healthy.Average American child > common cold is the mostfrequent (and most severe) illness.Poor nutrition associated with low incomeNutrition linked to cognitive andphysical growthUnderfed children > often lesssupervised, less stimulated,and less educated Health Problems in Elementary School 5-12
    • 5-13
    • Dangers that Preschoolers FaceHigh levels of physical activity (they can get around on their own now). Poison, drowning in tub (~350/yr)/pools (~250/yr), falls, burns (2nd most common among preschoolers) falls poisoning Boys have higher injury rates.Economic and ethnic differences Poverty = 2x higher risk Cultural differences in supervision, gender rolesHead injury is leading cause of death for preschoolers Motor vehicle accidents account for 38% (2011), but… 5-14
    • Socioeconomic Status Health status of children correlates with income “Approximately 11 million U.S. preschool children are malnourished and have lowered resistance to diseases”(Howell, Pettit, & Kingsley, 2005; Ramey,under 5 &Lanzi, 2006) In 2009 census, only 21 million Ramey, total. (Olson, Tang, &Newacheck, 2005) How are data collected? 5-15
    • HandednessHistorically, left-handers were forced to writewith their right handOrigin of handedness genetic right-handedness is dominant in all culturesLeft-handers more likely to have reading problems tend to have better visual-spatial skillsLeft-handedness more common than expectedamong mathematicians, musicians, architects,and artists 5-16
    • Motor Development: 4 - 6 YearsGross Motor • Rides a tricycle • More coordinated hopping, jumping, skipping • Throw and catch balls • Swing on a swing with pumping • Climbs ladders; uses slide independently • Runs around obstacles seamlessly • Skates • Jumps rope • More or less accident prone? 5-17
    • Motor Development: 4 - 6 Years Fine Motor• Can “copy” figures• Can cut with scissors on a line• Brushes teeth; combs hair, washes, dresses• Prints letters and numbers• Establishes hand preference• Laces and then ties shoes• Colors within lines• Cuts and pastes• Uses mouse on computer accurately 5-18
    • Cognitive Changes: Intellectual DevelopmentPiaget’s Preoperational Stage: 2 to 7 Begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings Use of concepts; mental reasoning Egocentrism and magical beliefs Child does not yet perform operations > reversible mental actions Characterized by symbolic thinking 5-19
    • Hart and Risley (1995)Economic level a significant factor in amount of parental interactions types of language children were exposed to kinds of language used.Poverty related to lower IQ scores by agefive.The longer children live in poverty, the moresevere the consequences. 5-20
    • Piaget’s Preoperational StageCENTRATION - concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects.Demonstrated centration by experiments with CONSERVATION 5-21
    • Egocentric ThoughtThe inability to take the perspective of others; takes two forms: 5-22
    • Preoperational Thought: Intuitive Thought SubstageB/T ~4 and 7Primitive reasoning and many questionsQuestions signal the emergence of interest in reasoningand in figuring out why things are the way they are“Intuitive” b/c children seem sure about their knowledgeand understanding 5-23
    • Critics of Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development (revisited)Piaget underestimated capabilities.Cognition develops in a continuous manner, not instages.Training can improve performance in conservationtasks.Focused too much on the deficiencies of youngchildrens thought. 5-24
    • Vygotsky’s TheorySocial constructivist approach ZPD -- zone of proximal development scaffolding Which child has a larger ZPD? 5-25
    • Do improved language abilities in preschoolers lead toimprovements in thinking ability, or is it the reverse? 5-26
    • Differential Language Exposure 5-27
    • Teaching Strategies Based on Vygotsky’s TheoryAssess the child’s ZPDUse ZPD in teachingUse more-skilled peers as teachersMonitor and encourage children’s use of private speech(Private speech facilitates learning)Place instruction in a meaningful context 5-28
    • Comparing Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s TheoriesVygotsky’s emphasis Piaget’s view that suchon the importance of speech is immatureinner speech indevelopment Children need support to explore their worldStudents need many and discoveropportunities to learn knowledgewith a teacher andmore-skilled peers 5-29
    • Review Page 151/134 5-30
    • Criticizing VygotskyOveremphasized role of language in thinkingEmphasis on collaboration and guidance haspotential pitfalls: Facilitators might be too helpfulSome children might become lazy and expecthelp when they might have done something ontheir own 5-31
    • Information-Processing ApproachAttention -- the focusing of cognitive resourcesMemory -- the retention of information over time 5-32
    • (1) Understanding of Numbers 5-33
    • Early childhood and TV • 40% of 3-month-olds • 90% of 2-yr-olds • median age > 9 mos 5-34
    • Television How does television affectcognitive dev’t of preschoolers? 5-35
    • Television: learning from the media? 5-36
    • ECE Three-quarters of children in U.S. are enrolled in some kind of care outside the home. What makes for successful ECE? 5-37
    • Is Head Start Successful? 5-38
    • Head Start Funding 5-39
    • 5-40