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CHAPTER 3 
PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE 
DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY
THE BRAIN 
• Contains tens of billions of nerve cells at birth 
• Shaken baby syndrome - Brain swelling and 
hemorrhaging ...
DENDRITIC SPREADING 
3-3
SYNAPTIC DENSITY IN THE HUMAN BRAIN 
FROM INFANCY TO ADULTHOOD 
3-4
THE COMPETENT NEWBORN 
Reflexes 
[Surgery]
SENSORY CAPABILITIES OF THE 
NEWBORN
HABITUATION/DEHABITUATION
HABITUATION/DEHABITUATION 
What does habituation imply about memory processes of infants?
CEPHALOCAUDAL AND 
PROXIMODISTAL PATTERNS 
• Cephalocaudal 
• Proximodistal 
• Hierarchical integration
THE FIRST YEAR 
• Average North American (full term) newborn ~ 20 inches 
long; 7 pounds 
• Lose ~5 to 7% of body weight a...
THE FIRST TWO YEARS 
1 year: ~30 inches tall. 
2 years: ~35 inches tall— 
nearly half of their eventual 
adult height
INTEGRATING THE BODILY SYSTEMS: 
THE LIFE CYCLES OF INFANCY 
Behavior becomes integrated through the 
development of vario...
SLEEP 
• Considerable individual variation 
• newborns can sleep 16 to 18 hours a day (average 
~16) 
• preferred patterns...
SIDS 
• Children in U.S. = 1910 (2011) 
• The leading cause of death in children under 1 
year old (except for congenital ...
DECLINING RATES OF SIDS 
SIDS Rate and Back Sleeping 
(1988 – 2006) 
1.4 1.39 
1.3 1.3 
1.2 1.17 
1.03 
0.87 
0.77 
55.7 
...
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS — LARGE 
MUSCLE ACTIVITIES 
• Move by themselves - 6 
months 
• Sit unsupported - 6 
months. 
• Crawlin...
Physical Milestones 
First Year 
Eating: 
• Can begin using a “sippy cup” 
• Can be spoon fed 
• Can be introduced to SMAL...
FINE MOTOR SKILLS 
• By 3 months infants 
can coordinate 
movements of 
limbs. 
• Infants can grasp an 
object by 11 
mont...
BENEFITS OF BREAST FEEDING 
• Appropriate weight gain; lowered risk of childhood obesity 
• Fewer allergies 
• Reduction o...
Breast Feeding
Breast Feeding
Breast Feeding
INTRODUCING SOLID FOODS 
• Most babies begin to eat solid foods b/t 4-6 
months 
• Foods are introduced gradually 
• Weani...
DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENSES 
Infants hear from the time they are born— 
and even before
VISION 
Infants show clear visual preferences that are present 
at birth: 
• Prefer to look at patterns and complex stimul...
VISION, CONT. 
• Newborn infants cannot see beyond a distance of 20 feet 
• By ~6 months, the average infant's vision is 2...
VISUAL PERCEPTION
HEARING, TOUCH, AND PAIN 
• Prenatally at 7 months, infants can hear 
sounds such as mother’s voice and music 
• Immediate...
SMELL AND TASTE 
• Newborns can differentiate odors 
• Sensitivity to taste might be present even before birth 
• At only ...
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN 
INFANCY 
© 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
Infant cognition develops through changes in the way 
children approach problems (infants learn by doing).
ASSIMILATION AND ACCOMMODATION 
• Processes of development 
• Schemes: 
• Behavioral scheme 
• Mental scheme 
• Assimilati...
PIAGET 
• Equilibration 
• Individuals go through four 
stages of development 
• Cognition is qualitatively different 
• S...
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE 
• Six substages 
 Primary: reflexes determine interaction 
• Accidentally sucks fist, feels good, so ...
EVALUATING AND MODIFYING 
PIAGET’S SENSORIMOTOR 
STAGE 
• Motor emphasized at the expense of sensory 
-–largely ignores se...
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 
• All human languages have 
some common 
characteristics 
• Receptive/expressive 
You talkin’ to me?...
KEY MILESTONES IN LANGUAGE 
DEVELOPMENT 
• Babies' sounds and gestures go through this 
sequence during the first year 
• ...
LANGUAGE SOUNDS 
• ~ 2-years-old, children can form noun-verb 
sentences 
• Overextension 
• Underextension
A one-year-old 
signing “sleep”
LEARNING THEORY/NATIVIST 
APPROACHES 
• Learning theory 
• Chomsky > genetic; 
innate mechanism 
• All languages > similar...
INFANT-DIRECTED SPEECH (IDS) 
[MOTHERESE] 
 Use of this type of speech is related 
to the early appearance of words
FIGURE 3.9 - MILESTONES IN GROSS 
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT 
3-43
Lifespan Chapter 3 Online Stud
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Transcript of "Lifespan Chapter 3 Online Stud"

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY
  2. 2. THE BRAIN • Contains tens of billions of nerve cells at birth • Shaken baby syndrome - Brain swelling and hemorrhaging • Brain’s development • Lateralization 3-2 Four Lobes
  3. 3. DENDRITIC SPREADING 3-3
  4. 4. SYNAPTIC DENSITY IN THE HUMAN BRAIN FROM INFANCY TO ADULTHOOD 3-4
  5. 5. THE COMPETENT NEWBORN Reflexes [Surgery]
  6. 6. SENSORY CAPABILITIES OF THE NEWBORN
  7. 7. HABITUATION/DEHABITUATION
  8. 8. HABITUATION/DEHABITUATION What does habituation imply about memory processes of infants?
  9. 9. CEPHALOCAUDAL AND PROXIMODISTAL PATTERNS • Cephalocaudal • Proximodistal • Hierarchical integration
  10. 10. THE FIRST YEAR • Average North American (full term) newborn ~ 20 inches long; 7 pounds • Lose ~5 to 7% of body weight adjusting to feeding. Back to birth wt in 2 wks. • Double birth weight by 5 months; nearly triple by 12 months
  11. 11. THE FIRST TWO YEARS 1 year: ~30 inches tall. 2 years: ~35 inches tall— nearly half of their eventual adult height
  12. 12. INTEGRATING THE BODILY SYSTEMS: THE LIFE CYCLES OF INFANCY Behavior becomes integrated through the development of various body rhythms
  13. 13. SLEEP • Considerable individual variation • newborns can sleep 16 to 18 hours a day (average ~16) • preferred patterns of sleep vary • Infants spend a greater amount of time in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep • by 3 months of age, the percentage of time in REM sleep decreases [next]
  14. 14. SIDS • Children in U.S. = 1910 (2011) • The leading cause of death in children under 1 year old (except for congenital abnormalities and short gestation) • Risk of SIDS is highest at 4 to 6 weeks of age • Occurs in children of every race and socioeconomic group (Congenital abnormalities = 5013; Short gestation = 4106)
  15. 15. DECLINING RATES OF SIDS SIDS Rate and Back Sleeping (1988 – 2006) 1.4 1.39 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.17 1.03 0.87 0.77 55.7 0.74 0.72 64.4 66.6 0.67 0.62 72.2 75.7 71.6 71.1 72.8 70.1 0.56 0.57 0.53 0.56 0.54 0.55 17 13 26.9 38.6 35.3 53.1 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 19 88 19 89 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 AAP Recommendation Back to Sleep Campaign Year SIDS Rate (Deaths Per 1,000 Live Births) 100 50 0 Percent Back Sleeping SIDS Rate Source: CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, Sleep Position Data: NICHD, National Infant Sleep Position Study. U.S. rates have dropped dramatically as parents put babies “back to sleep.”
  16. 16. GROSS MOTOR SKILLS — LARGE MUSCLE ACTIVITIES • Move by themselves - 6 months • Sit unsupported - 6 months. • Crawling - 8-10 months • Standing with support - 8 months • Infants can walk holding onto furniture by 9 months and walk alone by ~1 year.
  17. 17. Physical Milestones First Year Eating: • Can begin using a “sippy cup” • Can be spoon fed • Can be introduced to SMALL-SIZED solid foods Small Motor Coordination: • Can pick up toys in both hands (and bang them together!) •Will practice dropping objects • May throw objects (especially…everything) •Will begin to pick up “Cheerios” or other small object with thumb and index finger
  18. 18. FINE MOTOR SKILLS • By 3 months infants can coordinate movements of limbs. • Infants can grasp an object by 11 months. • By age 2, infants can drink from a cup without spilling.
  19. 19. BENEFITS OF BREAST FEEDING • Appropriate weight gain; lowered risk of childhood obesity • Fewer allergies • Reduction of diarrhea, respiratory infections, bacterial and urinary tract infections • Denser bones in childhood and adulthood • Reduced childhood cancer and reduced incidence of breast cancer in mothers • Lower incidence of SIDS
  20. 20. Breast Feeding
  21. 21. Breast Feeding
  22. 22. Breast Feeding
  23. 23. INTRODUCING SOLID FOODS • Most babies begin to eat solid foods b/t 4-6 months • Foods are introduced gradually • Weaning
  24. 24. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENSES Infants hear from the time they are born— and even before
  25. 25. VISION Infants show clear visual preferences that are present at birth: • Prefer to look at patterns and complex stimuli, • Prefer to look at faces, • Minutes after birth they show a preference for certain colors, shapes, configurations. Robert Fantz found that 2- and 3-month-old infants preferred to look at more complex stimuli.
  26. 26. VISION, CONT. • Newborn infants cannot see beyond a distance of 20 feet • By ~6 months, the average infant's vision is 20/20 • Gibson's "visual cliff" experiments indicates depth perception
  27. 27. VISUAL PERCEPTION
  28. 28. HEARING, TOUCH, AND PAIN • Prenatally at 7 months, infants can hear sounds such as mother’s voice and music • Immediately after birth, infants cannot hear soft sounds or pitch as well as adults do • Infants also display amazing resiliency • Within several minutes after the circumcision surgery (which is performed without anesthesia), they can nurse and interact in a normal manner with their mothers
  29. 29. SMELL AND TASTE • Newborns can differentiate odors • Sensitivity to taste might be present even before birth • At only 2 hours of age, babies made different facial expressions when they tasted sweet, sour, and bitter solutions
  30. 30. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
  31. 31. Infant cognition develops through changes in the way children approach problems (infants learn by doing).
  32. 32. ASSIMILATION AND ACCOMMODATION • Processes of development • Schemes: • Behavioral scheme • Mental scheme • Assimilation: Using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences • Accommodation: Adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences Which one? 1. Infant uses sucking schema to suck on larger bottle/nipple after presentation of smaller one. 2. One-year-old grabs every “round, rolly object” and tries to grab and throw; sees a beach ball.
  33. 33. PIAGET • Equilibration • Individuals go through four stages of development • Cognition is qualitatively different • Sensorimotor stage: Lasts from birth to about age 2. • Infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical actions • Object permanence: Understanding that objects and events continue to exist: • When they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched 3-34
  34. 34. SENSORIMOTOR STAGE • Six substages  Primary: reflexes determine interaction • Accidentally sucks fist, feels good, so suck some more (provides info about the world = cognitive development). • Secondary: Begins to act on world (e.g., Rattles a rattle) • Repeats actions; Goal-directed behavior; Develops object permanence • Tertiary circular reactions: deliberate variation of actions  Miniature “experiments” Hit drum, then table, then floor, then head with a stick • Beginning of thought ~18-24 months of age • Mental representation
  35. 35. EVALUATING AND MODIFYING PIAGET’S SENSORIMOTOR STAGE • Motor emphasized at the expense of sensory -–largely ignores sensory and perceptual abilities of infants • Piaget's claim that certain processes are crucial in stage transitions is not always supported by the data • Some researchers conclude that infants’ perceptual abilities are highly developed very early in development Criticism of Piaget
  36. 36. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT • All human languages have some common characteristics • Receptive/expressive You talkin’ to me?!
  37. 37. KEY MILESTONES IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT • Babies' sounds and gestures go through this sequence during the first year • Crying: • Cooing: • Babbling: [text is wrong] • First Words ~ 10 to 14 months • Average is 15 words by 15 months; First words are typically holophrases (Holophrastic stage ~12-18 months)
  38. 38. LANGUAGE SOUNDS • ~ 2-years-old, children can form noun-verb sentences • Overextension • Underextension
  39. 39. A one-year-old signing “sleep”
  40. 40. LEARNING THEORY/NATIVIST APPROACHES • Learning theory • Chomsky > genetic; innate mechanism • All languages > similar underlying structure • LAD • Interactionist view
  41. 41. INFANT-DIRECTED SPEECH (IDS) [MOTHERESE]  Use of this type of speech is related to the early appearance of words
  42. 42. FIGURE 3.9 - MILESTONES IN GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT 3-43
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