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Lifespan Chapter 2 A Online Stud
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Lifespan Chapter 2 A Online Stud

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  • 1. Chapter 2 The Start of Life: Genetics and Prenatal Development © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
  • 2. Heredity
  • 3. Heredity
    • The human genetic code is transferred by gametes.
      • Sperm
      • Ova
        • The sex cells from the mother and father that form a new cell at conception (aka sperm and ovum).
  • 4. Heredity Fertilization = sperm + ovum ( the gametes ) = one set of paired chromosomes = single new cell, a zygote.
  • 5.
    • The 23 rd chromosome determines the sex of the child.
      • Females are XX.
      • Males are XY.
      • The FATHER’s sperm determines the sex of the child.
  • 6.
    • Monozygotic/Dizygotic
    Some Terms to Remember
  • 7.
    • Concordance rate
    Some Terms to Remember
  • 8. Sandra Scarr: Genetics can influence environment in 3 ways:
        • Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment effects - children seek out environments they find compatible and stimulating
        • Passive genotype-environment effects - parents raise children in the way in which they are comfortable
        • Evocative genotype-environment effects - child’s characteristics elicit certain types of environments
  • 9.
    • Dominant/Recessive [next]
    • Genotype – genetic material
    • Phenotype – observable
    • Gregor Mendel
    Some Terms to Remember
  • 10. b B B b b b B B Mother B b Father B b b B Blond hair Brown hair How Brown-Haired Parents Can Have a Blond-Haired Child The gene for blond hair is recessive.
  • 11. Some Genetic Disorders Down Syndrome Sickle-Cell Anemia Tay-Sachs Klinefelter’s Syndrome
  • 12. Behavioral Genetics
    • How behavioral disorders may have a genetic basis (e.g., schizophrenia).
    • How genetic defects may be remedied.
    • The inheritance patterns of genetic disorders.
    • How physically damaged genes contribute to genetic disorders.
    • Gene therapy , genes to correct a particular disease are injected into a patient’s bloodstream
    • G erm-line gene therapy, genetic modifications can correct problems for unborn AND future generations
    • Cloning
  • 13. The Start of Life Alternate forms of fertilization (Reproductive Technology) Artificial Insemination
  • 14. The Start of Life Alternate forms of fertilization (Reproductive Technology) In vitro fertilization (IVF) Eggs are harvested from the woman’s ovaries, fertilized in the lab, and then deposited in the uterus
  • 15. The Start of Life Alternate forms of fertilization (Reproductive Technology) Gamete intrafallopian transfer
  • 16. The Start of Life Alternate forms of fertilization (Reproductive Technology) Zygote intrafallopian transfer (~ IVF + GIFT)
  • 17. Success Rates of Three Different Assisted Reproduction Techniques There is little variation in success rates based on couples’ ages. 0 10 20 30 40 29.2% 31% 24.5% ZIFT IVF GIFT
  • 18. This single cell is transformed into a person by the human genetic code. Zygote
  • 19. The Start of Life The Onset of Development Germinal Stage (first two weeks) Germinal disc 0.8 hours post fertilization
  • 20. The Start of Life The Onset of Development Embryonic Stage (two to eight weeks)
  • 21. Gastrulation
    • Ectoderm
    • Endoderm
    • Mesoderm
  • 22. The Start of Life The Onset of Development Fetal Stage (eight weeks until birth) During the fetal period, the proportions of the body change dramatically.
  • 23. Prenatal Testing
    • Ultrasound Sonography
    Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) Amniocentesis-- Often goes along with genetic counseling
  • 24. Threats to Prenatal Development
    • Illnesses
    • AIDS
    • Aspirin
    • Thalidomide
    • Marijuana
    • Cocaine
    • Cigarettes
    • Alcohol