Lifespan Chapter 10 Online Stud

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Lifespan Chapter 10 Online Stud

  1. 1. Chapter 10Social and PersonalityDevelopment inAdolescence 12-1
  2. 2. Self Concept and Self EsteemWhat am I like?How do I like myself?Identity and self-expression?Risk taking? Rebellion? 12-2
  3. 3. Self-esteem is influenced by:GenderSESRaceEthnogender 12-3
  4. 4. EriksonIdentity formation: Crisis or change?Identity vs role (identity) confusionPsychological difficulties in search for identity = “the adolescent identity crisis” [Next] Westernized teens seek: •Individualism •Independence •Autonomy 12-4
  5. 5. CrisisCommitment 12-5
  6. 6. D. James MarciaFour categoriesEither a Crisis (exploration) or a Commitment (decision) 12-6
  7. 7. E. Identity, Race & Ethnicity Cultural assimilation model: identities should be assimilated; “melting pot” Pluralistic society model: diverse, coequal cultural groups; “tossed salad” Bicultural identity: can draw from own culture and integrate into dominant •Stress related to: –Language –Support network –Family obligations (work) –Change in SES –Acculturation 12-7
  8. 8. The Generation Gap“Generation Gap” is largely a myth. E.g., on social, political, and religious issues. The difference in values between teens is greater w/parents. Most parents and teens get along well.Conduct more than valuesMost teenagers have stable family relationships; ~20percent have a rough time. 12-8
  9. 9. Nevertheless, an adolescent’s push for autonomy and responsibility puzzles and angers many parents What to do as the adolescent pushes for autonomy?< “Storm and stress”< Supportive; moderate conflict can serve dev’l need 12-9
  10. 10. Relationships with PeersFriends often shape well-beingReference group 12-10
  11. 11. Cliques and Crowds Stereotypes ? Cliques > [text] ~2 to 12 people; frequent interaction; usu same sex• Crowds > larger groups share some characteristics; less personal; based on reputation.• Strong expectations that people in a particular crowd behave in specific ways. (A self-fulfilling prophecy?)• Less impt by end of adolescence 12-11
  12. 12. Juvenile Delinquency: The Crimes of Adolescence• Undersocialized Delinquents – Family discord; inconsistent discipline – Relatively aggressive and violent early in life – Rejected status – Higher incidence of ADHD – Usually less intelligent than average – High recidivism• Socialized Delinquents – Influenced by group – Criminal behavior more often committed with group – Crimes comparatively minor 3:1 male:female in juvie courts 12-12
  13. 13. Dating, Sexual Behavior, and Teen Pregnancy • Dating – Age? – How much freedom? – Roles (I.D.)? • What is “hooking up?” Those who date are more likely to be:  accepted by peers  perceived as more physically attractive Early dating and hooking up is associated with adolescentpregnancy and problems at home and school 12-13
  14. 14. Adolescent Sexuality• Curiosity, exploration; experimentation• Media influence?• Tied to ID • Skills to avoid undesirable consequences • Gender/orientation• Developing new forms of intimacy 12-14
  15. 15. Dating, Sexual Behavior, and Teen Pregnancy What is Sex? 12-15
  16. 16. Timing of Adolescent Sexuality How do you know if ready? Early sexual activity > linked with risky behaviors: drug use, delinquency, school problems Low parental monitoring > linked with early sex, more partners, less condom use Oral sex > heavier drinkers, perception of peer approval; often recreational 12-16
  17. 17. Sexual Intercourse% who have had sexual intercourse at different ages12-17
  18. 18. Sex• Intercourse – Ages for sexual intercourse have been declining. – ~20% have had sex before the age of 15, 80 percent at 21. – Numbers postponing sex is rising.• “Outercourse”• Oral Sex – Increase in last 10-15 yrs – Is it sex? Still virgin? – Perception that it is likely to be safer 12-18
  19. 19. Contraception 12-19
  20. 20. Teen Pregnancy• Teen pregnancy rate is declining across all ethnic groups in U.S. [next].• Still higher in U.S. than in other industrialized countries.• Teenage mothers do not fare well: – Poor health • Increased neurological problems, childhood illness; low birth wt. – Poor school performance – Cycle of poverty 12-20
  21. 21. Teen Pregnancy (Per 100,000) 12-21
  22. 22. Teen Pregnancy• Key factors in preventing/breaking the poverty-pregnancy cycle are:– Completing high school– Postponing future births– Education– Supportive family 12-22
  23. 23. Sexual Orientation• Same-sex encounters: • Females: 11% of 18 - 44 in 2005; 4% 18 - 59 in 1994) • Males: 6% of those less than 30 • Far fewer numbers become exclusive; 1 to 4 percent. 12-23

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