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Introduction to chemistry

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY Definitions and History
  • 2. DEFINITION OF CHEMISTRY
    • It is the science of matter and the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.
    • It is more on the composition, behavior, structure and properties of matter.
    • Origins of the term Chemistry came from the following:
      • Arab Latinized word “Keme” meaning “ value ”
      • Egyptian word “Khemia” meaning “ transmutation of earth”
      • Greek word “Khymeia” meaning “Art of alloying metal” and “Khumeia” meaning “casting together” or “putting together”
  • 3. DEFINITION OF CHEMISTRY
    • Chemistry is a Natural Science that falls under Physical Sciences
    • Its known branches are:
    • Organic Chemistry
    • Inorganic Chemistry
    • Biochemistry
    • Physical Chemistry
    • Analytical Chemistry
  • 4. HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY
    • By 1000BC ancient civilizations where applying different branches of chemistry. Examples are purifying and extracting metals, dying cloth materials, fermentation of wine, cosmetics, painting, medicines, embalming, food making, and making alloys.
  • 5. HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY
    • The first chemical reaction that was used in a controlled manner was “FIRE”
    • Greeks, Indian, and Egyptians where the ones to first to utilize chemistry without realizing it.
    • Purification of metals was first recognized as early as 2600 BC by the Egyptians when they purify gold.
  • 6. HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY
    • The discovery of alloys marked the start of the Bronze age (3300 BC). This started in Egypt and Mesopotamia (Ancient Near East)
    • Advancement in alchemy and metallurgy were made in Ancient India
  • 7. ALCHEMY TO CHEMISTRY
    • Alchemy is a practice associated with mysticism and protoscience.
    • People were looking for methods for finding cheaper ways of making gold and finding miraculous cure for diseases during ancient European times.
    • Alchemists also known as gold cooks believed to have powers that science can’t explain.
  • 8. ALCHEMY TO CHEMISTRY
    • Alchemist were believe to have the ability to:
    • Turn base metals to gold
    • Find a cure for the Bubonic Plague
    • Produce medicine that will improve life
    • Create the Elixir of Life known as the Panacea
  • 9. ALCHEMY TO CHEMISTRY
    • But because alchemy has no system for documenting its progress and basically no basis for its phenomena making the process vague, it was proven fraudulent.
    • Muslims, lead by Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber) translated Greek and Egyptian works into Arabic and made systematic and experimental approach to alchemy. He was consider by many as father of Chemistry.