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DISHA, meaning direction, was an initiative to facilitate disadvantaged youth to gain access to jobs in the evolving new economy with self-respect and dignity.

DISHA, meaning direction, was an initiative to facilitate disadvantaged youth to gain access to jobs in the evolving new economy with self-respect and dignity.

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  • 1. 1
  • 2. 2 Contents S. NO ITEMS Page No 1. About the Programme- “Disha Ek Mouka” 3 2. Foreword 4 3. Executive Summary 5 4. The Rationale 6 5. The trajectory of Disha-‘Ek Mouka’ 7 5.1. Gender composition 7 5.2. Age Groups 7 5.3. Classification based on Social groupings 8 5.4. Educational Qualification 8 5.5. Courses offered under Disha 9 5.6. Gender representation in diverse trades 10 5.7. Training and placement 11 5.8. Placement Status 11 5.9. Remunerations 12 6. Correlation between Variables 13 7. Conclusion 14
  • 3. 3 About Disha-“Ek Mouka” Disha-“Ek Mouka” was a flagship programme of the Moserbaer India Ltd, under which an initiative was taken to place certain sections of people in the mainstream jobs so that these underserved people could be finally independent, and could not only earn a livelihood but also make a career out of it. . The primary aim of the project was to train underprivileged youth and migrant population in various trades by providing a holistic livelihood promotion module, which combines vocational training with skill development training, life skills modules, job placement and career exploration opportunities through an experiential mode, aimed at developing confident individuals capable of self-guided growth. The targeted beneficiaries of the project were drop out students from the villages in the vicinity of Moser Baer manufacturing units. At Disha, MBT aimed at the ambitious target of creating 1000 livelihoods, standing up to its commitment towards a better community. This joint venture of the Moserbaer Trust (MBT), CAP Foundation and USAID India, was initiated in September 2007 and phased out in October 2010. It was a three-year project aimed at developing workforce among the disadvantaged youth of the society, especially in Noida and Greater Noida, to meet the emerging demands of various corporates. Disha, meaning direction, was an initiative to facilitate disadvantaged youth to gain access to jobs in the evolving new economy with self-respect and dignity The facts presented in this report will thereby pour light on the struggles made to overcome social and cultural barriers to achieve what has been accomplished in the last three years from September 2007-October 2010.
  • 4. 4 Foreword India has the largest base of skilled manpower in the world, in the number of graduates and postgraduates that it churns out every year. But there are a large number of children and youth who drop out after different grades in education, i.e. primary, middle and secondary and higher secondary. We all know that human resource is undoubtedly the most powerful tool for the economy of the country. In India, more than 54 % population is below 25 years of age, which gives us the status of being the youngest country in the world. We have large number of youth in the age group of 19-24 years who are either un- employed or under-employed. According to the International Labour Organisation, India has approximately 39 million registered unemployed persons. According to iWatch, a Mumbai-based voluntary organization, there are probably another 260 million who are underemployed or unemployed in the age group of 18-50 years. At the same time, the organised private sector is struggling to find skilled workers, which in turn is impacting its ability to compete on a global scale. This accounts for a large base of untapped manpower, that if can be trained properly shall make India the largest hub of skilled manpower in the world. Skill development can be used as a tool to enhance the employability and earning capacity of the youth. Quality and relevance of skill development is the key to India’s global competitiveness as well as improvement of individuals’ access to decent employment. Quality in any skill development programme cannot be ensured unless the quality of trainers is assured. There is a need for expansion of available infrastructure for instructors’ training in the country. Emphasis is needed for training and retraining of instructors not only in skills related to specific trade, but also in areas like Quality Management Tools, IT–Literacy and Life Skills. Considering the fact that government has it limited outreach, the private public partnership can be an alternative to increase and deepen the outreach to the beneficiaries.
  • 5. 5 Executive summary The programme aimed to provide equal opportunity to the rural youth, both boys and girls from the villages of Noida and Greater Noida, from diverse social backgrounds, in an inclusive manner. Under Disha, three courses were offered to the students– Customer Relations & Sales, IT Enabled Services and Office Assistant. At the end of their course, the students have successfully been placed with companies like Mc Donalds, DLF, Reliance Communications, Kailash Hospital, Barista, ICICI Finance, Eureka Forbes, etc. with initial salaries ranging from 3,000 – 6,000 Rupees, now exceeding over 7500/- per month. In the first phase from September 2007-August 2008, 1138 students were placed in jobs. In the second phase, 822 students graduated (which includes 676 males and 146 female students) and 533 placed in jobs. Close on the success of the three consecutive batches, more batches were started at Dadri in Greater Noida, offering courses in hospitality, IT hardware and services, office assistant and bedside patient assistance. Road shows and mobilization activities were also conducted for opening another centre near Moser Baer’s plant at Noida. In the face of challenges, and with untiring efforts, 24% girls received training under the aegis of Disha, while 76% boys benefitted through Disha’s skill development programme. The projected was designed to train the dropout youth falling between the age brackets of 18- 35 years, with market based skills to cater the local needs of the area. The project saw 66% of the total students falling under the age group of 16-20years, followed by 21% between the age group of 21-25years. Of the total representation, 48% students hailed from the OBC background, followed by SCs at 12% and 8% minority background. The students trained under the Disha skill development programme were mostly school dropouts; 32% of the students were higher secondary dropouts; and only 14% and 1% students were Graduate and post graduate, respectively. To add value to programmes offered to the students as per their choice, some courses were made mandatory for all students, in addition to any particular courses they opted for, considering them vital for their all-round growth. These were personality development, computer fundamentals and basic life skills. Hence, providing much needed assistance in career counseling to the disadvantaged youth, who could otherwise not have attained such kind of training for lack of or meager financial resources. The overall placement rate under the programme has been 77.75%, with the overall dropout rate at 22% only. Subsequent follow ups have discovered that 95% of the students are still in the jobs they were placed in with a significant progressive change in their work profile, salaries and companies.
  • 6. 6 Rationale Noida, a part of district Gautambudh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, known as electronic city, has been observing a rapid industrialization that is leading to a huge demand of skilled workforce in the area. Though, industrialization has been proven a blessing for a handful of people who have got a handsome compensation against their land acquisition, at the same time it has also become a source of population influx from various corners of the country to metropolitan cities. To meet the demand of global market, emphasis is given to recruiting the workforce with right kind of skills sets who can keep their pace with new technological developments. In the absence of requisite skills, growing competitive market has been witnessing a gap between the demand and supply of the skilled workforce. In a recent report published by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and the Boston Consulting Group (BCG), it has been estimated that India would face ‘talent gap’ of more than 5 million by 2012, as existing educational institutions do not impart employable skills. The report titled, ‘India’s Demographic Dilemma’, brings out the fact that $1.1-trillion economy will have a shortfall of 7, 50,000 skilled workers over the next five years. In contrast, during the same period there will be a surplus of 1.3 million unskilled and unqualified school dropouts and illiterates. If we rely on this estimated data then we must understand that talent gaps if widened in the process could only lead to choking economic development and become counterproductive in the form increasing crime rate and other social evils. Therefore, there is a need to focus on imparting vocational training to the youth into market driven skills whereby they can earn bread for their better sustenance. Worldwide, about 80 per cent of the population between 15 to 35 years of age learns a vocation, a skill or a trade, with a choice of 3000 VET programs. India has only identified about 500 courses and according to a recent World Bank study, less than 3 per cent of our population undergoes formal VET training. Hence, some concentrated efforts are needed for establishing the avenues that could impart skills to the youth as per their capacities and the need of the area. Against this backdrop, realizing the need for skill development programme, the MBT with its rich experience of working with the youth, intended to provide them training on various skills and trades suiting the local market requirement. Disha-Ek Mouka therefore was launched with the intention to train unemployed, drop out and unskilled youth in market driven skills to equip them to earn a decent livelihood.
  • 7. 7 The trajectory of Disha-‘Ek Mouka’ Gender composition The programme aimed to provide equal opportunity to the rural youth, both boys and girls, from diverse social backgrounds, in an inclusive manner. To bring the females to join workforce or for that matter, any training, is a challenging task in itself. The socio- cultural barriers attached with the females are well known. The same was encountered by the programme associates and required family counseling and other such engagement with parents to win their trust and support in the interest of the girls. Gradually, with much effort, 24% girls received training successfully under the aegis of Disha. A lot is to be achieved in this direction, but though low, the percentage of girls’ representation is an impetus for further endeavours. On the other hand, it was a triumph to have benefitted 76% males through its skill development programme. Through the initiative, the early school drop- outs and those already employed received training to acquire and enhance skills, ensuing into better job prospects eventually. Age Groups The projected was designed to train the dropout youth falling between the age brackets of 18- 35 years, with market based skills to cater the local needs of the area. Though, it was meant for males above 18years of age but there were also boys of age 16 to 17 years who wished to enroll themselves in several different personality development programmes. Studies have shown that India has large number of youth in age group of 19-24 years who are either un-employed or under-employed. According to the International Labour Organisation, India has approximately 39 million registered unemployed Total Beneficiaries - 2131 Total Beneficiaries - 1982
  • 8. 8 persons. Thus, envisaging promising prospects for employment after the completion of training, youth, mostly males came forward to enroll into the programme. The project saw 66% of the total trainees falling under the age group of 16-20years, followed by 21% between the age group of 21-25years. Classification based on Social groupings It is often seen that the labour class in India is constituted mostly of the marginalized social groups and minorities, namely the Other Backward Castes (OBC), Scheduled Castes and Tribes (SC & ST), the Muslims and other social cultural minorities. Physical handicaps make the people with disabilities even more vulnerable among various social groupings, when they hail from deeply marginalized ethnic groups. However, standing to the objective of inclusive growth of its beneficiaries, the project gave an opportunity to the youth from diverse social and ethnic entity to receive training in market based skills. Of the total representations, 48% hailed from the OBC background, followed by SCs at 12% and 8% minority sections. The migrants coming from the adjoin states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar etc. and settled here for assured livelihood are 21% of the total beneficiaries in the areas of project’s operation in Noida and Greater Noida. Notably, only a smaller segment of 7% belonging to the general category enrolled themselves in the programme. This further justified the need to introduce such a programme in the areas to assist the marginalized social groups by way of offering them the most needed skills for employment, in conjunction with developing their personalities, instilling confidence in them Educational Qualification As depicted in the chart, 50% of the total students enrolled in the programme were educated up to the senior secondary level. 32% of the students were higher secondary dropouts; and only 14% and 1% enrolled students were Graduate and post graduate, respectively. This persistently viewed trend of youth Total Beneficiaries – 2295 (including disabled &migrants Total Beneficiaries - 2131
  • 9. 9 dropping out at senior secondary level either could possibly be due to two perceivably evident reasons- poverty and urgency to earn to supplement family income, in some cases run the household entirely. Thus, the programme suited their interest and equipped them with market driven skills so that they could have decent opportunities for dignified sustenance. However, the country continues to face stern challenges with rampant unemployment and underemployment, driving the youth astray in the absence of stable career. Despite growing investment in education, 35% of its population is still illiterate; only 15% of Indian students reach high school, and just 7% graduate. Secondary education covers children of age group 14-18 years which is 88.5 million children according to the Census, 2001. However, enrolment figures show that only 31 million of these children were attending schools in 2001-02, which means that two-third of the population remained out of school. The objective of this project to engage drop out students into market driven skills to get into an entry level has been achieved, which is quite evident from the results this project has showcased. Courses offered under Disha Disha programme was implemented into two phases in Delhi and National Capital Region (NCR). A detailed need assessment was done to assess the market needs. Subsequently, 3 training centres were operated in each phase. In the 1st phase, centres ran across Dadri, Surajpur, Gama and Chalera areas, and in the second phase centres operated across Khora, Shaheen Bagh, Kotla, and Bhangel, catering to the demand of the industry sector for sales executive in shopping malls etc. As result of the same, Customer Relation and Sales (CRS) was found to be most popular amongst all trades, followed by Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES). Of the total, 28% and 22% were trained in these two trades, respectively. To add value to programmes offered as per student’s choice, some courses were made mandatory for the students, in addition to any particular courses they opted for, considering them vital for their all-round growth. These were personality development, basic computer and basic life skills. Personality development entailed training for facing interview, Total Beneficiaries - 2131
  • 10. 10 communication skills, basic spoken English, games, group interaction and so on. Interest inventory tests were conducted on the students to enroll them into courses of their choice and aptitude. A considerable number of students (15%) were also trained in the hospitality trade, and the need for introduction of additional trades (as depicted in the chart) emerged after the two batches were successfully completed. There were a few courses that were introduced in lieu of area specific demand, like the Bed Side Patient Assistance (BSPA), and IT hardware, etc. whereby, the students of the area were trained in those only, ofcourse, after seeking their confirmation for the same. The BSPA course was run in Shaheen Bagh and had around 22 students trained in this particular trade. Disha, hence, proved its worth by giving career counseling to the disadvantaged youth, who could otherwise not have attained such sort of training for lack of or meager financial resources. Gender representation in diverse trades As mentioned above, it was a challenge to get the females out of their homes to join the programmes due to deep rooted cultural barriers. The female representation in training programmes was although very less, yet, BSPA was the course which had maximum representation of female trainees. In Microsoft unlimited potential programme (MSUP) and Desktop Publication (DTP) courses, an almost equal representation of both boys and girls was observed; otherwise, the huge difference in the enrollment of the two in other courses is evident from the chart. It is important to reiterate that to have even this percentage of females to come forward for the courses has set the precedence for launching further such programmes; having won the trust of their parents at the micro and community at the macro level. It would not be an exaggeration to hope that a change in the lives of the trained females will surely touch the lives of other families who did not send their girls for the course, sooner or later.
  • 11. 11 Training and placement Success of any skill development programme is rated by the number of students placed in gainful employments successfully. Disha achieved the desired results in its both phases. In the first phase, it proved a grand success by having placed around 85% trained students of 1137 total trained youth from across 110 villages of Noida & Greater Noida in various company outlets like McDonald, Pizza Hut, Reliance, ICICI, HDFC, and Lifestyle etc. In view of the accomplishment of Disha - Ek Mouka, phase I students, Moser Baer Trust organized the Convocation Day to award the successful students. It was due to this victory that MBT announced the launch of the second phase of Disha - Ek Mouka, on 21st of October 2008. Since, the overall placement rate under the programme has been 77.75%, with the overall dropout rate at 22% only. Placement Status After placing the students with various companies’ outlets successfully, the follow ups were made to ascertain the status of their employment. The post placement survey was conducted for the youth of Noida, covering 4 ETCs of Bhangel, Dadri, Challera and Gama. The survey also revealed the satisfaction of the employers with the students and also gave information on the future plans of the candidates. To be precise, the post placement survey was to see whether the programme was a successful one or not. Through the follow ups procedures it has come to light that 95% of the students are still in the jobs with a significant progressive change in their work profile, salaries and companies. Few of Total Beneficiaries - 1860
  • 12. 12 them were promoted to the upper rung of the companies and rewarded with the ‘Best Employee’ awards as well. The remaining 5% students were found to have quit the jobs in pursuance of higher studies. Few of them have even started their own small enterprises. Remunerations The average income at which the students were placed in different companies’ outlets under Disha programme was Rs. 4500/-pm. As shown in the chart, a major proportion of the placed students are now earning a decent salary of over Rs. 8000-9000/-, with a few also earning a remuneration of Rs. 7500- 9000/- per month. The companies like Aditya Birla, Sunlife and More for You are the major employers of the trained students in their respective branches across the city. Income Earned 44% 14% 4% 17% 12% 8% 0% 0% 1% Below 1500 Rs. 1501- 2500 Rs. 2501-3500 Rs. 3501- 4000 Rs. 4001 - 5000 Rs 5001 -6000 Rs. 6001-7500 Rs. 7500-8000 Rs 8000-9000 Total Beneficiaries - 1638
  • 13. 13 Co-relation between variables Age vs. Income The results have shown that students falling between the age group of 15-20 years and 21-25 years were employed with a higher salary and have been elevated to the higher levels in their jobs in a short span of time. 40% students belonging to the age group of 21-25 years are the highest paid category with Rs.4000-5000/- pm, while 34%trained students belonging to the age group of 16-20 years, earn salaries ranging from Rs. 2500- 3500 pm. This shows that the youth in the age group of 21-25 are mature and efficient in dispensing their responsibilities, achieving their targets and focused. This can be backed up with the clear nature of their jobs, in which their remunerations keep escalating on the basis of incentives they earn from achievement of the given targets. Nevertheless, the contrary is also to be viewed in all seriousness, which reveals that youngsters of less than the employable age earn less. It may not be wrong to say that at this age it is important to provide them continued education and not push them into work sector, at an age which requires shaping of their vision based on vocational skill accompanied with quality education. However, poverty and other obstacles make uninterrupted education a farfetched aspiration for these children. Hence, both vocational skills and education is required to have a stable career, and all efforts are therefore, made by the MBT to add value to the existing government school education through its other initiatives, and enroll the dropouts in useful skills. Course vs. high salary Equilibrium in the demand and supply leads to better pay for the students with requisite skills. The NCR, especially Noida, which is known as an ‘electronic city’, has developed into a hub of various companies’ outlets, generating huge demand for skilled persons in customer relation and sales (CRS). The project assessed the demand of the market and trained the people in relevant and needed skills in the same area. Resultantly, students trained in this course are paid higher remuneration. A total of 29% students draw a salary of over Rs. 6000/-per month. Out of the total placed students, 45% are engaged in CRS trade, whereas 34% and 21% are from ITES and Hospitality, respectively. Gender barriers vs. job placement Despite considerable enrollment of girls under Disha, the placement ratio of girls in employment is very low. Families’ approval for joining the workforce is perceived to be a major obstruction for the girls for pursuing a job. Only 11% of the trained females showed courage and sought jobs. Therefore, it can again be seen how the gender constructs are always at play in the society, where girls are forced to remain confined to
  • 14. 14 household chores. This paves way for engaging with the families even more, to counter the deep-seated patriarchy in a culturally acceptable manner. Gender vs. course selection As evident from the results that the highest paid courses were CRS, ITES and Hospitality, the representation of females is low in such jobs. Only 19% of the total enrolled females were a part of the CRS course, whereas 18% and 14% completed their training in ITES and Hospitality courses, respectively. Yet, as stated above, the social and cultural barriers, family approval etc. have deterred them from even applying for jobs in which they have received training. Conclusion Therefore, Disha Ek Mouka reached its culmination and achieved satisfactory results by providing employment opportunity to 1671 youth. It also provided an insight into various deep rooted social and cultural dynamics of the society, particularly in the rural arena- its impact on the implementation of the project, and viability of a partnership for accomplishing the envisaged results within the project timeframe and vice versa. The findings of this report surfaced that social and cultural factors had pushed the girls to the back fore from getting into job of their choice due to pressure from the family and social norms. On the other hand, in the absence of family pressure, a large number of male counterparts were employed into jobs, thereby, exhibiting a patriarchal mindset of the society. The project intended to create 2000 livelihood opportunities for rural youth in two years, which could not be done within its decided time frame due to various operational reasons. During the due course, MBT also learnt that adherence to systems and processes, monitoring mechanism and constant review of the progress play a significant and non negotiable role in the success and completion of any programme. There should be some clear demarcation of the areas where the consideration can be made and should strictly be followed. There are certain things like quality of the programme, time frame, taking mutual decisions, etc. that should not be compromised with. Thus, it can be seen that the programme was a success, exceeding the target of creating 1000 livelihoods. At the same time, it was also a lesson for the MBT to partner with a firm system in place for adherence by the partnering organizations for swift and timely implementation of the programmes. The learning derived from this project firms up MBT’s belief in carrying ahead such initiatives that have proved to be instrumental in transforming the lives of rural youth in a positive manner.