Heavy Vehicle Dynamics Model &Path Control AlgorithmsMorteza Hassanzadeh, Mathias LidbergVehicle Dynamics GroupChalmers Un...
Outline•    Introduction•    Use cases suitable for path control•    Heavy vehicle system dynamics in planar motion•    Pa...
IntroductioninteractIVe project overview• Website:                         www.interactIVe-ip.eu• Budget:                 ...
IntroductionPartners and project structure2013-01-29   Transportforum 2013   4
IntroductionSP5: INCA• Development of integrated collision avoidance and vehicle path control for  passenger cars and comm...
IntroductionCurrent presentation• Development of integrated collision avoidance and vehicle path control for  commercial v...
Use cases suitable for path controlDefinition and prioritization• Use case: a description of specific sequence of interact...
Use cases suitable for path controlRear-end collision avoidance (RECA)• Use case name: Rear-end collision avoidance (RECA)...
Use cases suitable for path controlRun-off-road prevention on a straight road (RORP)• Use case name: Run-off-road preventi...
Use cases suitable for path controlRun-off-road prevention in a curve (RORP)• Use case name: Run-off-road prevention in a ...
Heavy vehicle system dynamics in planar motionThe model• A 4 DOF two-track model:    • Longitudinal ( X )    • Lateral ( Y...
Path control algorithmsOverview• Path planning block initiates the reference path that satisfies some criteria.• Feedforwa...
Path control algorithms Critical path                                                                                     ...
Path control algorithmsFeedforward control                                                                          Heavy ...
Path control algorithmsFeedback control                                                                              Heavy...
Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA)Rear-end collision avoidance by steering: a single lane change manoeu...
Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA)                                                                   He...
Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA)                                      Lateral acceleration           ...
Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA)                             Torque on the steering actuator         ...
Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA)                                                                  Pat...
Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA)  It is also tested with discrete input with update rate of 10 Hz; th...
Model verificationComparison with test data• A series of tests were performed in the handling area of the Hällered Proving...
Model verificationComparison with test data  A single lane change  manoeuvre was performed with  50% safety margin for  lo...
Model verificationComparison with test data                                                                              T...
Thank you.             25
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Session 27 Mathias Lidberg

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Heavy Vehicle Dynamics Model & Path Control Algorithms
Transportforum 2013

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Session 27 Mathias Lidberg

  1. 1. Heavy Vehicle Dynamics Model &Path Control AlgorithmsMorteza Hassanzadeh, Mathias LidbergVehicle Dynamics GroupChalmers University of Technology
  2. 2. Outline• Introduction• Use cases suitable for path control• Heavy vehicle system dynamics in planar motion• Path control algorithms• Simulation results; rear-end collision avoidance• Model verification; comparison with test data• Summary2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 2
  3. 3. IntroductioninteractIVe project overview• Website: www.interactIVe-ip.eu• Budget: EUR 30 Million• EC funding: EUR 17 Million• Duration: 42 months (January 2010 – June 2013)• Coordinator: Aria Etemad, Ford Research & Advanced Engineering Europe• 10 Countries: Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, The UK2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 3
  4. 4. IntroductionPartners and project structure2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 4
  5. 5. IntroductionSP5: INCA• Development of integrated collision avoidance and vehicle path control for passenger cars and commercial vehicles.• “Vehicle path control” module dynamically evaluates a collision free trajectory in rapidly changing driving scenarios.• 3 demonstrator vehicles: • Ford Focus • Volvo S60 • Volvo FH13• INCA coordinator:• INCA cooperators:2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 5
  6. 6. IntroductionCurrent presentation• Development of integrated collision avoidance and vehicle path control for commercial vehicles.• 3 use cases are prioritized and the problem is narrowed down to path planning, actuators configuration, and control algorithm design.• A robust path and speed controller should be developed to fulfil the requirements of all use cases.• A simulation tool, that includes a heavy vehicle model, is needed to investigate performance and robustness of various actuator configurations, and the control algorithms.2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 6
  7. 7. Use cases suitable for path controlDefinition and prioritization• Use case: a description of specific sequence of interactions between the driver and truck to achieve a specific goal.• Use cases are defined by name, accident type, and descriptive narrative.• Use case prioritization is based on: • Accident statistics • Use case complexity• Prioritized use cases are: • Rear-end collision avoidance (RECA) • Two lane road, single lane change • Run-off road prevention (RORP) • On a straight road • In a curve2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 7
  8. 8. Use cases suitable for path controlRear-end collision avoidance (RECA)• Use case name: Rear-end collision avoidance (RECA)• Use case ID: UC_01_504_v2• Use case description: Prevents rear-end collisions by informing or warning the driver or by intervening by automatic braking and/or steering.• Reference • Level 1 TS_SP5_1 [Accident in queue (rear end)] • Level 2 TS_SP5_1.1 [Rear end collision due to slowing vehicle in front]2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 8
  9. 9. Use cases suitable for path controlRun-off-road prevention on a straight road (RORP)• Use case name: Run-off-road prevention on a straight road (RORP)• Use case ID: UC_06_510_v2• Use case description: Informs/warns the driver of an impending lane departure and, if needed, steers automatically to avoid road departure.• Reference: • Level 1 TS_SP5_2 [Single truck accident (run-off road)] • Level 2 TS_SP5_2.1 [Running-off on a straight road]2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 9
  10. 10. Use cases suitable for path controlRun-off-road prevention in a curve (RORP)• Use case name: Run-off-road prevention in a curve (RORP)• Use case ID: UC_06_509_v2• Use case description: Informs/warns the driver of an impending lane departure and, if needed, steers automatically to avoid road departure.• Reference: • Level 1 TS_SP5_2 [Single truck accident (run-off road)] • Level 2 TS_SP5_2.2 [Running-off in a curve]2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 10
  11. 11. Heavy vehicle system dynamics in planar motionThe model• A 4 DOF two-track model: • Longitudinal ( X ) • Lateral ( Y ) • Yaw ( ) • Roll (  )• A nonlinear tyre model (Magic Tyre Formula): • Transient force build-up (relaxation length is considered) • Drop in adhesion coefficient for increased vertical load2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 11
  12. 12. Path control algorithmsOverview• Path planning block initiates the reference path that satisfies some criteria.• Feedforward input is calculated based on the reference path.• Feedback controller provides corrections to compensate for errors due to simplifications and uncertainties.• General overview of the whole process: Heavy vehicle model Feedforward Use case Path planning + controller Feedback controller2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 12
  13. 13. Path control algorithms Critical path Heavy vehicle model Feedforward Use case Path planning + controller Feedback controller• Critical path: the shortest feasible escape path, that can Required longitudinal distance, d (for RECA) 3 be determined by iterative 5 procedure: 2 Y ( X )   ci X i • Start with initial guess. i 0 • Checking criteria. Y [m] 1 Vehicle path with no intervention Intervention point • Increasing longitudinal Rejected path Critical path distance if needed. 0• Increasing longitudinal distance of the critical path is -1 Required longitudinal distance, d (for RORP) equivalent to adding safety 0 20 40 60 margin to the manoeuvre. X [m] 2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 13
  14. 14. Path control algorithmsFeedforward control Heavy vehicle model Feedforward Use case Path planning + controller Feedback controller • Feedforward control: steady state bicycle model is used to calculate steering inputs: le ay  FF   K us r g where: 2 C le  l  (1  r ) l Cf2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 14
  15. 15. Path control algorithmsFeedback control Heavy vehicle model Feedforward Use case Path planning + controller Feedback controller• Lateral position (Y) PID control:  FB  K p (Yref  Y )  Ki  (Yref  Y )d  K d (Yref  Y )  • Yaw angle PD control:  FB  K p ( ref  )  K d ( ref  )   dYref d Y   ref  tan 1 ( )  ref  V  V dX dX 1  Y 22013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 15
  16. 16. Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA)Rear-end collision avoidance by steering: a single lane change manoeuvre.Parameter settings:Parameters ValuesFriction, µ 0.65Lateral distance 3mHV Initial Velocity, v 80 km/hLV Initial Velocity, vl 0 km/hLongitudinal distance 56 m2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 16
  17. 17. Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA) Heavy vehicle position Intervention 4 Reference Lateral position control 2 Y [m] Yaw control 0 Obstacle -2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 X [m] Heading angle 10 Reference Intervention Lateral position control  [deg] 5 Yaw control 0 -5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 X [m] Heading angle rate 20 d /dt [deg/s] Reference Intervention Lateral position control Yaw control 0 -20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 X [m]2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 17
  18. 18. Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA) Lateral acceleration Steering wheel angle 3 200 Reference Reference Lateral position control 2 150 Lateral position control Yaw control Yaw control 1 100 ay [m/s2]  [deg] 0 50 -1 0 -2 -50 -3 -100 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 X [m] X [m] Lateral jerk Steering wheel angle rate 20 Reference 1500 Reference 15 Lateral position control Lateral position control Yaw control 1000 Yaw control 10 d/dt [deg/s] i [m/s3] 5 500 0 0 -5 -500 -10 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 X [m] X [m]2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 18
  19. 19. Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA) Torque on the steering actuator Torque rate on the steering actuator 15 Lateral position control Lateral position control 200 Yaw control Yaw control 10 150 dT/dx [Nm/s] T [Nm] 5 100 50 0 0 -5 -50 -10 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 X [m] X [m] Percentage of utilized adhesion; solid line style corresponds to lateral position control, and dashed line style corresponds to yaw control. 100 First axle, Left First axle, Right 80 Second axle, Left Second axle, Right Third axle, Left 60 Third axle, Right [%] 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 X [m]2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 19
  20. 20. Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA) Path error 0.5 Lateral position control eY [m] Yaw control 0 X=d -0.5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 X [m] Yaw angle error 2 Lateral position control e [deg] Yaw control 0 X=d -2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 X [m] Yaw rate error 5 ed /dt [deg/s] Lateral position control 0 Yaw control -5 X=d -10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 X [m]2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 20
  21. 21. Simulation resultsRear-end collision avoidance (RECA) It is also tested with discrete input with update rate of 10 Hz; the controller demands new steering wheel angle every 0.1 second. Path error 0.2 Continuous data eY [m] Discrete data 0 X=d -0.2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 X [m] Yaw angle error 2 Continuous data e [deg] 0 Discrete data -2 X=d -4 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 X [m] Yaw rate error 10 ed /dt [deg/s] Continuous data Discrete data 0 X=d -10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 X [m]2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 21
  22. 22. Model verificationComparison with test data• A series of tests were performed in the handling area of the Hällered Proving Ground.• The steering input from test data is also used as input to the simulation in order to validate the simulation model.• The results presented here also show a sample performance of the controller.2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 22
  23. 23. Model verificationComparison with test data A single lane change manoeuvre was performed with 50% safety margin for longitudinal distance. Actuators steering angle demand 60 Parameter settings: 40 Parameters Values 20 Lateral distance 3m  [deg] 0 HV Initial Velocity, v 80 km/h LV Initial Velocity, vl 0 km/h -20 Feedforward Longitudinal distance 73.5 m -40 Feedback Total controller demand Actuator response -60 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 t [s]2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 23
  24. 24. Model verificationComparison with test data Truck position 5 4 3 Y [m] 2 1 5th order polynomial; reference 5th order polynomial; target 0 Simulation Test data -1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 X [m] Yaw rate Lateral acceleration 8 3 6 2 4 1 d /dt [deg/s] 2 ay [m/s ] 0 2 0 -2 -1 -4 Reference -2 Reference -6 Simulation Simulation Test data Test data -8 -3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 t [s] t [s]2013-01-29 Transportforum 2013 24
  25. 25. Thank you. 25
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