On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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Writing a report with extended summaries of the studies.
Inventory And: 2 studies on knowledge dissemination Explanation bc use a.o. Substitution car and bc Evaluation tools (54) Evaluation Effectiveness of policy (54) Analysing Volume and characteristics of cycling Attractiveness (152) Motivation Plans Implementation (76) Descriptive General Policy
Differences in cycling between cities over 50,000 inhabitants, partly explained by differences in cycling policy (2003).
Evaluation of a bicycle street in the city of Haarlem (2006).
Evaluation of innovations to prevent chaotic bicycle parking on sidewalks in the city of Groningen (2007).
Evaluations of cycling policy (2006) and cycling parking policy (2007) in the city of Nijmegen.
Evaluation of a shared space project in the municipality of Haren, a wealthy suburb of Groningen (2008).
The influence of spatial planning on bicycle use and health; comparison between the new residential areas of (bicycle-friendly) Houten and (common) Leidsche Rijn (2008).
Case studies with extensive before and after studies
Two demonstration projects in the 1970’s, each consisting of building a longer bicycle route (several kilometres) in a larger city. The projects were carried out in the cities of Tilburg and The Hague.
Upgrading of the whole bicycle network in the medium-sized city of Delft in the 1980’s.
Examined topics in the two demonstration projects
Perception of the quality of cycling infrastructure,
Impacts on bicycle use,
Impacts on traffic safety,
Impacts on shop sales,
Organisation and implementation.
The Delft bicycle plan Location of Delft
The Dutch national programme for person transport for the period 1980-1984 included subsidy schemes for infrastructural projects.
Delft submitted a proposal for an upgrade of the whole bicycle network and succeeded to secure a subsidy that covered the majority of the costs.
The Delft bicycle plan The policy context
The Delft bicycle plan The network 1. Urban network: high standards for capacity and convenience (density 400-600 m), 2. District network (200-300 m), 3. Network on neighbourhood level; links the individual houses to the other networks. In the before period 75% of the network existed and had the demanded quality.
Build bicycle paths and bicycle lanes (46) ,
Abolish one-way traffic for bikes (26) ,
Phase traffic lights for bicycle speed (7) ,
Install traffic lights (9) ,
Permit cyclists turning to the right at traffic lights (7),
Reconstruction of crossings (21) ,
Build/reconstruct bridges (8) ,
Build/reconstruct tunnels (2) ,
Provide more storage facilities for bikes (2) .
The Delft bicycle plan The implemented projects
The initially planned costs were 70 million HFL (Dutch guilders).
The realised costs were 29 million HFL (12 mln ECU, ≈ 90 mln DKK).
The difference is due to not building some expensive infrastructural works on low-intensity routes.
The Delft bicycle plan The costs
Volume of bike travel,
Traffic safety for cyclists,
Modal choice, especially between car, public transport, and bike,
Modal choice in access trips to the main train station,
Perception of comfort and safety for bike trips .
The Delft bicycle plan: research Investigated impacts
Before study describing the situation before most measures were implemented (1982),
Short-term after study, describing the situation shortly after most measures were implemented (1985),
Long-term after study (1992).
Both impacts of the whole plan and impacts of two selected projects were examined. The selected projects are:
One of the new bridges (Plantagebrug),
The improved accessibility of the main railway station.
The Delft bicycle plan: research Study set-up (1)
Two reference situations were defined for controlling for autonomous (short-term) developments. These are:
One of the Delft districts (Wippolder); this district was initially deprived from the network upgrading,
Other medium-sized towns in the Netherlands.
The Delft bicycle plan: research Study set-up (2)
Short-term growth of trips by bicycle (6-8%), no additional growth in the long run.
Short-term and (small) long-term growth of bicycle kilometres.
Modal shift from walking and car to bicycle (esp. car passenger).
Large impacts on route choice; extensive use of newly built bicycle paths and other infrastructure.
Short-term decline of bicycle accidents and victims; also long-term decline, but smaller than in the reference cities.
Strongly enhanced perception of accessibility, comfort and safety by 20% of the cyclists.
The Delft bicycle plan: research Results
Rather low ranking of Delft in the “Fietsbalans” measurements.
Positive: The success story of Delft stimulated other cities to improve their bicycle infrastructure significantly, lowering the relative position of Delft.
Negative: Delft did not maintain the network properly.
The Delft bicycle plan The very long term
January 2011: Definite selection of studies for detailed review.
January-April 2011: Review.
May 2011: Draft report with extended summaries of the reviewed studies and some general conclusions that can be drawn from the results.
July 2011: Final report.
Planning Activities, milestones and deliverables
One or more special WP4-meetings,
First meeting after producing the draft version of our report (May, June 2011?).
Planning Meetings to attend
Paper for Velo-city conference and possibly one or more other international conferences,
Journal paper? (Will just a review of existing studies have enough ‘body’ for a journal article?)