Basic Principles of Genetics Traits are controlled by dominant and recessive alleles. Every trait hasa dominant characteristic, one that shows up in most people. For example:eye color. Lets say that your mom has brown eyes and your dad has blueeyes, you will have brown eyes, because brown is the dominant of the twocolors. Capitol B is dominant over little b (little b=blue, B=brown). If there is adominant allele in the presence of a recessive allele, the dominant allele willmask the recessive allele and the dominant allele will be your phenotype.The only way you can have a recessive trait is if one of your parents ishomozygous for the trait, and the other is heterozygous. Or both yourparents are heterozygous or homozygous for the recessive trait. Everyparent has two alleles for a trait. They can be dominant or recessive(D=dominant, d=recessive). When an offspring is born they have some oftheir parents characteristics usually. This is because when the cells multiplythey get one of their parents two alleles. They combine through Mitosis.
Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project started in 1990. The project was thought to last 15 years, but theycompleted it (The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health) ahead of schedule andfinished it in 13 years in 2003. Their goals were: to identify all the (approximately) 20,000-25,000 genes in ahumans DNA, determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, storethe information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the privatesector, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues that may arise from the project. Social Issues: A big one is privacy and confidential genetic information, who owns it? Fairness in theuse of genetic information by insurers, employers, courts, school, adoption agencies and the military isanother one, who can use your genetic information? How would your genetic information affect you and howpeople look and think about you differently? What I think in my opinion, which is one of the most importantissues, is would your genetic info have you thinking twice about conceiving a child as well as your spouse? Ethical Issues: Should we ever use genetic engineering to enhance a body’s physical and mentalattributes if the technology ever came available to us? Also if we classify some kind of genetic code as“normal” or the “baseline” of human genetics, will there be a genetic underclass? Where is the line betweengenetic enhancement and medical care through genetic tweaking? Legal Issues: What if people start using genetic codes to advertise products and expose trade secrets? How would your genetic information affect your healthcare? The Human Genome project changed laws such as GINA because with all this new information about genes and the human genetic code some very serious points come up about the social, ethic and legal issues of human genetics. Some of these have to be resolved by adding or revising a law. Chromosomes
Genetic Disorders There are three different types of genetic disorders. These are single celled disorders,chromosome abnormalities, and multifactorial disorders. A single celled disorder is the result ofa single mutated gene. A chromosome abnormality is and abnormality in the number orstructure of a chromosome (for example people who have Down Syndrome have one extrachromosome). A multifactorial disorder is a disorder caused by the interaction of genetic andsometimes non-genetic and environmental reasons. A single celled disorder and chromosomeabnormalities are different from multifactorial disorders because multifactorial disorders canhappen because of non-genetic and environmental reasons, while single celled disorders andchromosome abnormalities usually happen at birth. Chromosome abnormality is to do with thestructure or number of a chromosome. While a single celled disorder is to do with the cellspecifically (not just the chromosome) and it only affects one cell in the body, not everychromosome in every cell in the body like chromosome abnormalities do. Genetic counseling can help because a genetic counselor identify any genetic problemsthat could arise if they were to conceive a child. They can decide if there will be any problemsthrough genetic testing. They do this by analyzing small samples of blood or tissue and thenusing a punnet square decide if there will be any problem and if there will be, what are thechances that your child can have this disorder. Karyotyping is a test that essentially brings up a profile of your chromosome makeup.Then geneticist can see if there are any abnormalities in the order or number of thechromosomes, that can then help identify any disorders.
Argument #1 First of all, organ cloning would be used to save lives. That’s what it’smeant to do. Scientists take embryonic stem cells that can be grown intovirtually any tissue in the human body. They implant the a healthy cell fromthe organ they need transplanted into the healthy embryonic stem cells, thenthese stem cells would (in theory) grown into the patients own organ thatthey need replaced. Since it’s the patients own cells that are used to grow theorgan when it is implanted into the patient there is no way that his/hers bodywould reject it. If this technology is perfected (probably in our lifetime) it willsave hundreds of thousands of lives that otherwise would of died.
Argument #2 For some organs like a kidney, if a family memberwould have to donate a kidney, they would have to gothrough a (very painful) major operation, then the kidneythey donated might be rejected by the receivers body!All of the donors efforts would be for nothing. Thoughthe risk small the operation to take a kidney from onepersons body and give it to the other can havecomplications.
Argument #3 Therapeutic cloning is also a lot less risky that a donationorgan, because donation organs can be rejected by the body. Ifyour exact organ is cloned then there is no way that it can berejected. No way! I think in the future if one of your organsstarts to fail you’ll just get a replacement organ except that it willbe your exact organ! If the procedure is perfected it will becomeand everyday thing of life.
Argument #4 Therapeutic cloning, involves the use of induced pluripotentstem (iPS) cells aka stem cells. These stem cells are made byreprogramming adult tissue into a versatile embryo-like statewhich can grow (if a nucleus of a healthy organ is implanted) intovirtually any tissue of the human body (in theory). This isdifferent than cloning an animal, where they take a cells that hasbeen growing for a few days then extract the nucleus from themand inject whatever animals nucleus they wish to grow. Somepeople refer to the initial extracting of the nucleus as murdersand think that it is morally and ethically bad. With therapeuticcloning there is no life killed. The organ may not be what youwere born with but it will be the exact same thing.
Conclusion Organ Cloning, sounds just like what it describes. It means to make anexact copy of another organ. Therapeutic organ cloning will one day saveand help the lives of countless people curing Diabetes, Parkinson’s Disease,Heart Disease, Alzheimers Disease and Paralysis just to name a few. Thestem cells needed for this procedure can be grown in labs. This procedurewhen perfected will save some many lives it is almost impossible to realizethe scope of the magnitude of what can be accomplished here. Thegovernment should definitely pay for the research that needs to be done.When we can finally do this safe and sound, so many inconveniences of diet,lifestyle, and so many things that people who don’t have theseinconveniences just take for granted, will not exist anymore.
Charts/Graphs A punnett square. These can help determine if any of your offspring can inherit a disease/disorder that you # of people that will develop Alzheimers have a trait for or carry.Disease in the coming decades. Therapeuticorgan cloning can prevent this.
Works Cited"About the Human Genome Project." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/ Human_Genome/project/about.shtml>."Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/ sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml>."About the Human Genome Project." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/ Human_Genome/project/about.shtml>."Multifactorial Disorder - Definition of Multifactorial Disorder in the Medical Dictionary - by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia." Medical Dictionary. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ multifactorial disorder>."Genome.gov | Chromosome Abnormalities Fact Sheet." Genome.gov | National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) - Homepage. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.genome.gov/11508982>."Genetic Counseling." KidsHealth - the Webs Most Visited Site about Childrens Health. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://kidshealth.org/ parent/medical/genetic/genetic_counseling.html>."Understanding Karyotyping." Parenting Advice, Information, Parenting Skills for Todays Parents - IndiaParenting.com. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.indiaparenting.com/pregnancy/116_2606/understanding-karyotyping.html>."New Artificial Stem Cells Have Their Own Ethical Issues - Times Online." The Times | UK News, World News and Opinion. Ed. Mark Enderson. 24 July 2009. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/science/article6725335.ece>."Therapeutic Cloning - How It Is Done; Possible Benefits." ReligiousTolerance.org by the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.religioustolerance.org/clo_ther.htm>.