Basic Principals of Genetics If there is a dominant allele, and a recessive allele, the dominant trait will always appear. But if the cell is co-dominant, both traits show up. The process which shows us what traits the offspring will have is called a punnett square.
Human Genome Project <ul><li>The official start of Human Genome Project was in 1990, the age when sciencetist hoped to develop a detailed genetic and physical map of the human genome. </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Genome Project and related initiatives, have introduced powerful new methods to the study of genes. This progress is accompanied by important ethical and social issues. Although many of these issues are not unique to genomics (such as confidentiality, informed consent, etc.), companies, law enforcement or scientific researchers. </li></ul><ul><li>On May 21, 2008, President George W. Bush's signed the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. At last, the United States has a federal law that protects consumers from discrimination by health insurers and employers. </li></ul>
What are the Differences? <ul><li>There are a few differences between single gene disorder, chromosome abnormalities, and multifactorial disorders. In single-gene disorders, just one gene has a mutation. This mutation, usually inherited, may interrupt that gene's ability to share its directions for making a protein, which can lead to a single-gene disease. In chromosome abnormalitites,there are approximately 25,000 genes contained on the 46 chromosomes in each cell of our body. This means that one chromosome contains thousands of genes. A person can have normal chromosomes in number and structure, but still have a disease or condition caused by a mutation in one or more of the genes on the chromosomes. A single gene defect usually does not cause the chromosome structure or number to be abnormal. Similarly, a person can have normal genes, but, because they have extra copies of genes due to a chromosome abnormality, the extra copies can cause the genes to not work properly. Genetic counseling offers invaluable information to people whose unborn children are at risk for certain genetic diseases and birth defects—either before they are expecting or once they become pregnant. A normal human karyotype has 46 chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes. What happens when a person has something different, such as too many or too few chromosomes, missing pieces of chromosomes, and mixed up pieces of chromosomes. </li></ul>
Genetic Disorders Some of the most common genetic disorders are… Hispanic, Southern European, Middle Eastern, Indian, Sephardi Jewish Beta-Thalassemia All ethn All ethnic groups Cystic Fibrosis Fragile X Syndrome Spinal Muscular Atrophy African American Sickle Cell Anemia Beta-Thalassemia Asian Alpha-Thalassemia Beta-Thalassemia
More Genetic Disorders <ul><li>Ashkenazi Jewish </li></ul><ul><li>The Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Panel (AJGP) screens for all these diseases, plus Cystic Fibrosis. The chance that someone of 100% Ashkenazi descent will be a carrier of one of the diseases in the panel is 1 in 5. Tay-Sachs Disease (also more frequent among French Canadians , Cajuns , and people of Irish/British descent) </li></ul><ul><li>Canavan Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Familial Dysautonomia </li></ul><ul><li>Gaucher Disease (Type I) </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen Storage Disease 1a </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Lipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency (E3) </li></ul><ul><li>Maple Syrup Urine Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Niemann-Pick Type A </li></ul><ul><li>Mucolipidosis Type IV </li></ul><ul><li>Fanconi Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Nemaline Myopathy </li></ul><ul><li>Familial Hyperinsulinism </li></ul><ul><li>Usher Syndrome </li></ul>
Why am I for Organ Cloning? I am for Organ Cloning because it gives people who have lost a organ, like a kidney, or a liver, a chance to live. Say someone has a kidney failure, then they would need a kidney. But how would someone get that kidney? There are a few options. You could get a kidney from a dead person (has to be immediately after death), or you could get a kidney from a person or a animal that has been cloned, unless someone donates one of their own. A person can survive on one kidney, but not for very long.
What Can Organ Cloning Do? Organ cloning does not strive to make whole humans. Instead, it makes embryos as a source of embryonic stem cells for therapeutic purposes. Because embryos can grow into any body cells, they might be cultured into nerve cells, skin cells, even hair follicles for the bald. The obvious use of Organ cloning would be treating deadly diseases like diabetes and Parkinson's, where a specific type of cell or organ has died. Most cloned organs are used for organ transplants. You can donate a organ when you die.
How Long Does Organ Surgery Take? A bright side of the Organ Surgery is that, it doesn’t hurt at all. The surgery takes less than twelve hours, and you get given a pill, so you are “asleep”. Really, when you take that pill, all it really does is numb your body. So you can’t feel a thing. But you really are “asleep”.
What’s Wrong with It? Even though some people think Organ Cloning is good, other people have other ideas. “ On one hand, you have the sector in the organ cloning ethics debate that says human personhood starts at conception. Thus, cloning that results in the creation and the destruction of a pre-embryo is similar to killing a human being itself. The rationale is that when the pre-embryo is planted inside a woman’s uterus, it has a one in four chance of developing into an infant.” – StudioPress
What are the Risks? <ul><li>Reproductive cloning is expensive and highly inefficient. More than 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring. More than 100 nuclear transfer procedures could be required to produce one viable clone. In addition to low success rates, cloned animals tend to have more compromised immune function and higher rates of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders. Japanese studies have shown that cloned mice live in poor health and die early. About a third of the cloned calves born alive have died young, and many of them were abnormally large. Many cloned animals have not lived long enough to generate good data about how clones age. Appearing healthy at a young age unfortunately is not a good indicator of long-term survival. Clones have been known to die mysteriously. For example, Australia's first cloned sheep appeared healthy and energetic on the day she died, and the results from her autopsy failed to determine a cause of death. </li></ul>
Should Organs Be Cloned? <ul><li>Physicians from the American Medical Association and scientists with the American Association for the Advancement of Science have issued formal public statements advising against organ reproductive cloning. The U.S. Congress has considered the passage of legislation that could ban organ cloning. Due to the inefficiency of animal cloning and the lack of understanding about reproductive cloning, many scientists and physicians strongly believe that it would be unethical to attempt to clone organs. Not only do most attempts to clone mammals fail, about 30% of clones born alive are affected with "large-offspring syndrome" and other debilitating conditions. Several cloned animals have died prematurely from infections and other complications. The same problems would be expected in human cloning. In addition, scientists do not know how cloning could impact mental development. While factors such as intellect and mood may not be as important for a cow or a mouse, they are crucial for the development of healthy humans. With so many unknowns concerning reproductive cloning, the attempt to clone organs at this time is considered potentially dangerous and ethically irresponsible. </li></ul>
Can Organs be used Successfully in transplants? <ul><li>NO. The stem cells would be used to generate an organ or tissue that is a genetic match to the recipient. In theory, the cloned organ could then be transplanted into the patient without the risk of tissue rejection. If organs could be generated from cloned human embryos, the need for organ donation could be significantly reduced. Many challenges must be overcome before "cloned organ" transplants become reality. More effective technologies for creating human embryos, harvesting stem cells, and producing organs from stem cells would have to be developed. In 2001, scientists with the biotechnology company Advanced Cell Technology (ACT) reported that they had cloned the first human embryos; however, the only embryo to survive the cloning process stopped developing after dividing into six cells. In February 2002, scientists with the same biotech company reported that they had successfully transplanted kidney-like organs into cows. The team of researchers created a cloned cow embryo by removing the DNA from an egg cell and then injecting the DNA from the skin cell of the donor cow's ear. Since little is known about manipulating embryonic stem cells from cows, the scientists let the cloned embryos develop into fetuses. The scientists then harvested fetal tissue from the clones and transplanted it into the donor cow. In the three months of observation following the transplant, no sign of immune rejection was observed in the transplant recipient. </li></ul>
My Conclusion Should Organs be cloned or shouldn’t they? Is it right, or is it wrong? Will it always work, or won’t it? I am FOR organ cloning, because it gives people a chance to live, do things they couldn’t do when they had a injured organ, and to enjoy the rest of their life. Why end it there and then, when they might be able to live? Go for organ cloning! Go, Go, GO!!
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Works Cited <ul><li>University of Wisconsin, Board of Regents. "Therapeutic Cloning." The Why Files | The Science Behind the News . Web. 15 Mar. 2011. <http://whyfiles.org/148clone_clash/4.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Genomics.energy.gov. "Cloning Fact Sheet." Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Web. 15 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml>. </li></ul><ul><li>Google Images. "Sign of Organ Transplant - Google Search." Google . Web. 15 Mar. 2011. <http://www.google.com/images?hl=en&source=hp&biw=1049&bih=578&q=Sign of Organ Transplant&btnG=Search Images&gbv=2&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&safe=active>. </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organ_transplantation </li></ul><ul><li>StudioPress. "Ethics." Organ Cloning . Web. 16 Mar. 2011. <http://www.cloneorgans.com/organ-cloning-ethics/18/>. </li></ul><ul><li>Google Iamges. "SD Coalition Opposes Experimenting on Human Embyros." Web. 16 Mar. 2011. <http://www.voicescarryblog.com/sd-coalition-opposes-experimenting-on-embyros/>. </li></ul>
Works Cited <ul><li>.. "Using Karyotypes to Predict Genetic Disorders." Learn.Genetics™ . Web. 16 Mar. 2011. <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/predictdisorder/>. </li></ul>