Organ Cloning<br />By, Abby Higgins and Alex Florencia<br />
Basic Principles of Genetics<br />When there is a dominant trait and a recessive trait the dominant trait is always showing but there is still the recessive trait hidden. The dominant trait also shows when there are two dominant traits. When there are two recessive traits the recessive trait is showing.<br /> When there is a co-dominant trait there are two alleles where neither is dominant nor recessive. Traits are controlled by dominant alleles. For example, AB is co-dominance<br />Each parent (mother and father) give the offspring 23 chromosomes. A human has 46 chromosomes but a human’s germ cells or sex cells have half. So the parents of any offspring give half their chromosomes to their chromosomes to their offspring giving the offspring a total amount of chromosomes.<br />
Human Genome Project<br />Began in 1990 and was coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. A couple goals were to identify all the possible genes in human DNA. Determine the sequences of the chemical base pairs that make up the human DNA. Store information in databases. Improve tools for data analysis.Transfer related technologies to the private sector. Address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that can happen from the project<br />Some ethical implications are, GINA, which protects Americans from discrimination based on information gotten from genetic tests and who has access to the information. Some legal implications are, who owns and controls the genetic information and GINA is also legal not just ethical and it protects the privacy of information. Some social implications, are minorities, race, and genomics.<br />Created laws because people were getting information about genetic information. They made GINA which keeps test results private so there will be no discriminating.<br />
Genetic Disorders<br />A single-gene disorder is a heredity disorder caused by a mutant allele of a single-gene.<br />Hemophelia, Sickle-cell disease and Color Blindness are two single- gene disorders.<br />A chromosome abnormality is where a person’s chromosomes are unusual.<br />Some chromosome abnormalities are Turner syndrome which is where a women only has an X chromosome and is missing the other X. Klinefelter’s syndrome is when a male has XXy, that means they have male and female reproductive parts. Down Syndrome is when there are too many or too few chromosomes.<br />Genetic counseling gives parents information before or during a pregnancy so they can make decisions about their child because their children might be born with genetic diseases <br />
Argument 1<br />We are for organ cloning because if someone is sick and needs an organ, they shouldn’t have to wait for a match. They should just be able to clone their own organs so they can be healthy.<br />The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network says that 28,356 Americans received organ transplants in 2007 and about 78% of those came from the dead. In August 2008, more than 99,000 people in the U.S. were on a waiting list for organs <br />The answer would be therapeutic cloning, which only deals with embryos.<br />
Argument 2<br />Organ cloning starts with stem cloning. Stem cloning happens by cloning embryos, extracting the stem cells from the blastocyst, and stimulating the stem cells to make into the desired organ.<br />In 2007, scientists successfully cloned monkey embryos for the purpose of removing stem cells. It was the closest they ever came to performing that procedure in humans.Removing the stem cells efficiently destroys the embryo.<br />
Argument 3<br />Only some of the stem cells extracted are usable.<br /> Some cells mutate and can cause tumors. <br />To actually cure the disease you need millions of eggs and there aren’t that much to supply . <br />
Argument 4<br />It’s expensive and not always accurate. <br />Less than 10% of cloning attempts are successful. <br />Scientists are attempting to develop a pig in which tissues and organs can be harvested. But according to embryologist Ian Wilmut, this process risks the possibility of releasing pig viruses into the human population.<br />
Conclusion<br />Overall, we are for organ cloning but there are some disadvantages too. If scientists do clone organs on a regular basis, it might harm things other than humans. So, we believe that organ cloning could be good or bad. But, for now patients who need organs have to wait ion waiting lists so they can be healthy again.<br />
Work Cited<br />"Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 16 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml>.<br />Textbook pages-119-123<br />"HowStuffWorks "Organ Cloning"" Howstuffworks "Science" Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/genetic/cloned-organ-transplant1.htm>.<br />HowStuffWorks "Could We Clone Our Organs to Be Used in a Transplant?"" Howstuffworks "Science" Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/genetic/cloned-organ-transplant.htm>.<br />Cantwell, Lynn. "Genetic Counseling Helps Prepare Parents for the Future - Washington, DC." Georgetown University Hospital - Washington, DC. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org/body.cfm?id=556426>.<br />"Genome.gov | Chromosome Abnormalities Fact Sheet." Genome.gov | National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) - Homepage. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.genome.gov/11508982>.<br />Tounzen, Shelley. "Pros & Cons of Therapeutic Cloning | EHow.com." EHow | How To Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles | EHow.com. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ehow.com/about_5484506_pros-cons-therapeutic-cloning.html>.<br />Richards, Rebekah. "Cons of Cloning Organs | EHow.com." EHow | How To Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles | EHow.com. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ehow.com/facts_5531323_cons-cloning-organs.html>.<br />
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