Basic Principles of Genetics Question: How are traits controlled by dominant and recessive alleles? Answer: For starters, dominant alleles are alleles that always show up. And recessive alleles are masked, or covered up when a dominant allele is present. Alleles are what make up our traits, such as freckles, or brown or blond hair. So the traits controlled by a dominant allele will always show up, but the traits controlled by a recessive allele will only show up when a dominant allele isn’t present. Question: How are traits controlled with co-dominant alleles? Answer: Some allele are not dominant nor recessive, they are co-dominant which means that both traits will show up in the offspring. Example: A black chicken with a black body and black tail has offspring with a white chicken with a white body and a white tail (both these traits are co-dominant) the offspring turns out with a black tail and white body. Question: Explain how the two alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring? Answer: The two alleles combine when the male sex cell (holding half the chromosomes, or half the alleles or traits) and the female sex cell (holding the other half of chromosomes), or the other half of alleles and traits combine to for a single cell.
Human Genome Project Question: When did the project start and how did scientists hope to use this information (what where the goals from the beginning)? Answer: The project started in 1990 and ended in 2003. The goals where to identify all the approximate 20,000-25,000 genes in the human DNA, and determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA. Scientist’s hoped to store this information in databases, and improve tools for data analysis. Question: What are the implications of the Human Genome project in regards to, Ethical, legal, and Social implications (address each of these in your answer)? Answer: In regards to social issues, people are worried about who will get their hands on their genes, and if they do get the information, what exactly would they do with it. In regards to legal issues, people are worried about what bad people would do with their genetic information. And lastly in regards to ethical issues, some people just think it is wrong to even have access to other peoples genetics. Question: How did the Human Genome project change current laws such as GINA (genetic information nondiscrimination act of 2008) Answer: It changed laws such as GINA. GINA is a law which currently doesn't allow insurance companies from discriminating someone based on the genetic code that they could have gotten from heredity.. Example: If someone has the gene for liver cancer, an insurance company cannot deny them coverage or higher rates of insurance.
Genetic Disorders Question: Compare and contrast the three different types of genetic disorders: Single Gene Disorder: Is a disorder, or mutation, of a single chromosome in your DNA, affecting the whole body. For example down syndrome is a single gene disorder which affects appearance and causes speech impediments. Chromosome abnormalities: Chromosome abnormalities affect your chromosomes. For example Kleinfelter's syndrome. This syndrome is also called the XXY syndrome. It is called this because it gives males an extra X chromosome which gives them a more feminine appearance and they are normally infertile. Multifactorial disorders: Multifactorial traits result from the interaction of one or more environmental factors and two or more genes. Question: How can genetic counseling help perspective parents who have a genetic disorder regarding a future child? Answer: Genetic counseling helps these people because genetic counselors can predict if a child or the future child of someone with genetic disorders will have any genetic disorders. Question: How are karyotypes used to predict genetic disorders? Answer: They would take a blood or amniotic fluid sample from someone and analyze it so they can see what chromosomes are in that persons body.
Argument 1 Pros: Unlike human cloning, therapeutic cloning (or organ cloning) only involves taking the cells from someone's organ and making a new organ. For example people who have a cancerous organ can clone another one of their organs by using only a skin cell. “It would be indefensible to stop this research and deny millions of people — and their families — the opportunity to save their lives,” Adam Thomson, a British representative to the U.N., told the General Assembly in December.
Argument 2 Pros: When people donate an organ to someone else, there is always a chance that this organ will be rejected. However, the process of therapeutic cloning involves making an exact replica of one of your own organs which means there is no chance of organ rejection. “While most are opposed to reproductive cloning, some favor therapeutic cloning. The premise is that embryonic stem cells from a cloned embryo will produce matched transplant tissue for the patient whose cells were cloned.” said David Prentice, Senior Fellow for Life Sciences. What David Prentice said means is that the tissues of the organ will match, and the organ would not be rejected.
Argument 3 Pros: Therapeutic cloning does not make a whole entire new human being which we would try to control, it just makes an organ for a person to be able to survive off of. “Human cloning turns procreation into a manufacturing process, treating human life as a commodity made to preset specifications,” said Cardinal William Keeler, chairman of the Committee for Pro-Life Activities of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.
Argument 4 Pros: And lastly, it will saves people lives who have to wait on organ waiting lists. It will because waiting on a organ waiting list takes a lot longer then cloning one of your own organs. “Nobody is hurt by therapeutic cloning or embryonic stem-cell research, but . . . a great many people could be harmed by banning them.” says Blackburn, of the University of California.
Conclusion The government should fund this because it would save the lives of the people who are on organ waiting lists, and, it would stop any controversy over human cloning for organ harvesting. Also it would make the risk less for organ rejection because there would be more therapeutic cloning and less organ donations. This is why I think the government should fund this, and also why I thinks this is a great innovation in the world.
Works Cited Primary sources: “Nobody is hurt by therapeutic cloning or embryonic stem-cell research, but . . . a great many people could be harmed by banning them.” says Blackburn, of the University of California. “While most are opposed to reproductive cloning, some favor therapeutic cloning. The premise is that embryonic stem cells from a cloned embryo will produce matched transplant tissue for the patient whose cells were cloned.” said David Prentice, Senior Fellow for Life Sciences. “Human cloning turns procreation into a manufacturing process, treating human life as a commodity made to preset specifications,” said Cardinal William Keeler, chairman of the Committee for Pro-Life Activities of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Secondary sources: "The CQ Researcher Online." CQ Press Electronic Library . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2001051800&type=hitlist&num=2>. "The CQ Researcher Online." CQ Press Electronic Library . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre1997050900&type=hitlist&num=0>. "The CQ Researcher Online." CQ Press Electronic Library . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2003022100&type=hitlist&num=3>. "The CQ Researcher Online." CQ Press Electronic Library . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2004102200&type=hitlist&num=0>.
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