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Jason R., Alec G., Human Cloning, Periods 1 and 9, 1

Jason R., Alec G., Human Cloning, Periods 1 and 9, 1

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  • 1. Human Cloning
    By: Jason R. and Alec G.
    Periods 1 and 9
    Ms. Morgan
  • 2. Basic Principles of Genetics
    Individual alleles control the inheritance of traits. Some alleles are dominant while others alleles recessive.
    Neither allele is masked they mix together.
    One allele from each parent per trait is passed on to the offspring, they mix together if the allele is dominant that is inherited if both of the alleles are recessive then the offspring will inherit that trait.
  • 3. Human Genome
    Started in October 1990, the goal was to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome
    Ethical, legal and social issues with the human genome project are: Fairness in the use of genetic information, Privacy and Confidentiality, Psychological impact, and Reproductive issues.
  • 4. Human Genome (continued)
    The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, also referred to as GINA, is a new federal law that protects Americans from being treated unfairly because of differences in their DNA that may affect their health.
  • 5. Genetic Disorders
     Single gene disease- Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease of the mucus glands that affects many body systems. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) gene - causes CF. The gene was discovered in 1989. Since then, more than 900 mutations of this single gene have been identified.
    Chromosome abnormalities- nondisjunction the failure of replicated chromosomes to separate during Anaphase II.
  • 6. Genetic Disorders (continued)
    Multifactorial Disorders- Multifactorial inheritance disorders are caused by a combination of small inherited variations in genes, often acting together with environmental factors. Heart disease, diabetes, and most cancers are examples of such disorders.
  • 7. Controversial issues to cloning and genetic engineering.
    Many people believe cloning is against the will of god
    Because god would have made clones if he wanted us to have them.
    Others people argue that god doesn’t exist so its up to humans to decide if we want people to be cloned or not
    People also say that cloning is bad because the clone is not actually the same person with the same soul. And that it is not actually human but just a model of one.
    Some people say the best we can achieve with human cloning is that we can reproduce the same karyotype. Heredity is the transmission of genetic characters from parents to offspring therefore cloning has nothing to do with it.
  • 8. Scientific advances in cloning
    1894Hans Dreisch creates the first cloned animals
    1997 first cow, cloned from a fetal cell.
    Creation of sheep twins by embryo splitting,
    1902 Hans Spemman uses a hair from his son as a knife to separate a 2-celled embryo from a salamander.
    1996 The Roslin Institute in Scotland produces, Dolly, the first sheep and mammal cloned from a cell of an adult animal.
  • 9. Argument 1 for cloning
    When cloning humans great people such as Walt Disney could be cloned over and over each time one dies and then he could live forever. Cloning can be very good because
  • 10. Argument 1 against human cloning
    When animals have been cloned they often have disabilities.
    Dolly the sheep had arthritis and slight other slight mutations.
    Cloned animals, so far, have grown more quickly than they should.
  • 11. Argument 2 for cloning
    People who have had children that died can make a clone of that child.
    You can chose the parent for your clone, that way it will be someone you trust.
    Cloning would be a step towards a fountain of youth.
  • 12. Argument 2 against human cloning.
    Cloning can lead to overpopulation.
    Overpopulation can lead to over-usage of resources.
    Over-usage of resources can lead to starvation, homelessness, and diseases.
    Those things can lead to death.
  • 13. Argument 3 for human cloning
    Couples that have not been able to reproduce due to infertility could arrange to have themselves cloned. They could have a child and fund research at the same time.
  • 14. Argument 3 against human cloning
    One could clone a person of a certain pedigree and then that sais one race or physical attribute is better than another.
  • 15. Argument 4 for human cloning
    Dr. Richard Seed, one of clonings leading proponents, hopes that cloning will help us understand how to reverse DNA back to age 20 or whatever age we want to be.  Cloning would be a step towards a fountain of youth.
  • 16. Argument 4 against human cloning
    Cloning is bad because Dr. Harry Griffin dismissed reports about Dolly the cloned sheep that, five years after her birth, Dolly has aged prematurely, is weak, cannot walk properly and suffers from intestinal problems. If there are this many problems with a sheep would there be this many with a human? Nobody should have to find out.
  • 17. Conclusion
    Human cloning is a could be very good or very bad. However, the good things seem to overpower the bad things. Therefore human cloning is a good thing.
  • 18. Citations.
    Primary Sources:
    "Cystic Fibrosis - Genetics Home Reference." Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. 13 Mar. 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2011. <http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/cystic-fibrosis>.
     
    Smith, Simon. "All The Reasons To Clone Human Beings." Human Cloning Foundation Home Page. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.humancloning.org/allthe.php>.
    Secondary Sources:
    Cells and Heredity Textbook
    "Human Genetics." Estrella Mountain Community College. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookhumgen.html>.
    "Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml>.
    Human Cloning Foundation Home Page. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.humancloning.org/>.
    "Genome.gov | Genetic Discrimination Fact Sheet." Genome.gov | National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) - Homepage. Web. 09 Mar. 2011. <http://www.genome.gov/10002328>.
    “Palmer, Alasdair. "Cloning Humans Is a Very Bad Idea." DeepScience.com - Home Page - Science and Philosophy. 13 Aug. 2001. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.deepscience.com/articles/cloning.html>.”