Harvesting Stem Cells By Nick DelliPizzi and Alan Levine Period 8 and 9
Basic Principles of Genetics Whenever a dominant allele is active, the trait that is controlled by it will show up. If it’s homozygous for a recessive allele, the trait that is controlled by the recessive allele will show up. The alleles are dominant nor recessive. As a result neither offspring is masked. The alleles will be present in the offspring if they are co dominant. The dominant trait will show up if they are not co dominant.
Human Genome Project The Human Genome project began in 1990. It was a 13 year project that was completed in 2003. The main goals for this project were to identify all the genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of all the base pairs in the human DNA; store the information in a database; develop tools for analyzing data; and address the ethical, legal, and social issues that would arise from the project. Some of the implications of the Human Genome project iswho should have access to personal genetic information, and how will it be used and who owns and controls genetic information? The human genome project has changed current laws such as GINA because new genes were found that can cause a person to behave in a different way.
Genetic Disorders Single gene disorder- hereditary disorders caused by a single gene Chromosome abnormalities-reflects an abnormality of chromosome number or structure Multifactorialdisorders-Multifactorialtraits result from the interaction of one or more environmental factors and two or more genes Genetic counseling helps perspective parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children because it helps the parents know the risks and benefits of testing. Karyotypes are tests that tell if there is a genetic disorder. When there are too many chromosomes missing it shows that there might be a genetic disorder.
Argument 1 Harvesting stem cells is the taking of stem cells for use in cancer or other treatment. Usually these cells are taken from the patient's own bone marrow. The procedure usually involves use of a general anesthetic and an overnight hospital stay. Small cuts are made over the hipbones to allow entrance for the large needles used to puncture the bones and draw out the marrow. The marrow is frozen for later use. In some cases, stem cells from a donor are used. We are against harvesting stem cells because there is a possible risk that transplanted stem cells could form tumors and have the possibility of becoming cancerous if cell division continues uncontrollably.
Argument 2 At IVF clinics, more eggs are fertilized than are actually implanted and used. There are about 400,000 embryos that are now frozen at these clinics. About 8,000 to 10,000 of these eggs each year are simply discarded. Some people say that the use of those embryos for research is the same as murder. “I believe also probably say the same of the discarding of embryos that are not going to be used represents 8,000 or 10,000 murders a year.” Quoted from Sen. Byron Dorgan.
Argument 3 We are against harvesting stem cells because in order to do the procedure you have to destroy a human life to get the fertilized egg. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can morph into about 200 different types of cells. However, harvesting embryonic stem cells results in the destruction of human embryos, with the ethical aspect restricting investment in this field of research.
Argument 4 Therapeutic cloning is another issue that involves stem cells. You need stem cells extracted from embryos for therapeutic cloning. There is only a limited amount though because some of them mutate and cause tumors in the cells. Millions of eggs are required but there are limited supplies of them. Researches are trying to find other ways to produce these eggs.
Conclusion Overall, we think government should reject any proposals regarding harvesting stem cells. We believe this is a bad thing because the process may not work every single time. Scientists have mixed opinions about this subject but they are continuing to research it. Chemical and Life Science Engineering scientist, Stephen Fong, believes that research will continue to happen but nothing will be done in the next 5 years.
Works Cited Kohrs, Shelley. "Pros & Cons of Therapeutic Cloning | EHow.com." EHow | How To Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles | EHow.com. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ehow.com/about_5484506_pros-cons-therapeutic-cloning.html>. Clemmit, Marcia. "The CQ Researcher Online." CQ Press Electronic Library. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2006090100&type=hitlist&num=0>. "PowerSearch Logout." GaleNet. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://find.galegroup.com/gps/retrieve.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale(en,,):FQE=(ke,None,21)harvesting stem cells$&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=BasicSearchForm&tabID=T003&prodId=IPS&searchId=R1¤tPosition=1&userGroupName=nysl_se_tap&docId=A247281217&docType=IAC&contentSet=IAC-Documents>.