Genetic modification of foods Heyli Castillo Period 6
· 1) How are traits controlled by dominant and recessive alleles? If the dominant allele is curly hair it is dominant because curly hair overpowers straight hair which is recessive. 2)How are traits controlled with co-dominant alleles? Let’s take a flower for example. If you put a flower with white pollen and another flower with red pollen, the offspring will come out white with red. That means that white pollen is the same as red pollen so it is co-dominant. · 3)Explain how the alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring? 75% Curly 25%Straight C c C CC Cc c Cc cc
4) When did the project start and how did scientists hope to use this information (what were the goals in the beginning )? What are the implications of the Human Genome project in regards to Ethical, legal and Social implications The project started back on October 1990, the goal was to increase the production of food, for example, fruits, vegetables and eggs, etc. Who should have access to personal genetic information, and how will it be used? How does personal genetic information affect an individual and society's perceptions of that individual? How does genomic information affect members of minority communities? 5)How did the human genome project change current laws such as GINA (Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008) GINA protects Americans from discrimination based on information derived from genetic tests. It forbids insurance companies from discriminating through reduced coverage or pricing and prohibits employers from making adverse employment decisions based on a person’s genetic code. In addition, insurers and employers are not allowed under the law to request or demand a genetic test.
6)Compare and contrast the three different types of genetic disorders:
1. Single gene disorder- genetic conditions caused by the alteration or mutation of a specific gene in a person’s DNA. Single gene disorders run in the family. Peoples with a family history of a single gene disorder may pass this on to their children. Examples of single gene are cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, myotonic dystrophy, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, Fragile X syndrome and spinal muscular atrophy. 2.Chromosome abnormalities - A chromosome abnormality is an abnormality of chromosome number or structure. There are alot of types of chromosome abnormalities. But, they can be organized into two basic groups: Numerical Abnormalities and Structural Abnormalities 3. Multifactorial disorders- multifactorial genes can express a lot of variation, that is distribution of phenotypic expression from one extreme to another in a continuous fashion. Multifactorial genes can express continuous variation, that is distribution of phenotypic expression from one extreme to another in a continuous fashion.
7)How can genetic counseling help perspective parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children? Genetic counseling can help parents because then they would understand how a future child could be born with a disorder, counselors use karyotypes , pedigree charts and Punnet squares, to show parents what they are talking about. Also it could help the couple think about making decisions regarding children. 8)How are karyotypes used to predict genetic disorders? A karyotype is a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell. Scientist use this to revel whether or not a developing baby has the correct number of chromosomes, and if it is a boy or a girl.
Argument 1 Food modification is something that can seriously effect a humans health, scientists and government regulators maintain that GM food presents no food safety issues at the moment, but the truth of the matter is, we are eating chemicals. In an interview Jane Rissler talked about this topic But genetically modified crops are arguably much less harmful to the environment. . . . “ It depends on where you want to compromise. There's another issue here with corporate control of the food supply. . . . We're headed toward a time when there will be just a few corporations that control the food supply from the farm to the plate. And that is not in the best interest of a strong world economy. It's not in the best interests ultimately of healthy food and healthy people. . . .” As you can see modifying food might not be the best choice for your health and for our economy.
Argument 2 Remember we are not the only ones that eat.. For years and years farmers have been dealing with pest. Pest is actually one of the biggest problems for farmers. Now we have the technology to stop all of that. Most farmers would use a spray called, crop spray. You can imagine how annoying it most be to be spraying all your crops twice a day, other than that, the only problem with that is that, eventually pest can become resistant to crop spray; and when that happens the crop spray will become useless. Also scientist are worrying a lot about is, cross breeding, what happens when it is crossbreed with weed, then weed can become resistant to herbicides, therefore it would need a lot more herbicides.
Argument 3 With the economy it is very expensive to get organic food, so most people get food that has been modified, they just don’t know that. And the truth is that most organic food does not look attractive (example below) but it is still so much healthier! What’s the point? The point is, that now they have modified food so it last longer, so it doesn’t get rotten as fast. Tomatoes were modified since 1994 to make them stay fresh longer, but strawberries, pineapples, sweet peppers and bananas have all been genetically modified by scientists to remain fresh for longer also. Not genetically modified Genetically modified
Argument 4 Have you ever thought about if it is safe to eat modified food? Well aren’t we already? Yes, we are, and nothing has happened to us yet. It is estimated that around 65% of the products available in American supermarkets contain some amount of genetically modified ingredients. But the thing is, what happens if for some reason, there is a long term effect. America has been eating modified food for short period of time, so there is always that possibilities of that actually happening. Also if you really think about it, all that we are doing is eating mutated food. We are genetically engineering food so it is “better for us.”
Conclusion Food modification may sound like a good idea, but is it? Do you think the government should fund this? I say, lets not waste our money. Food modification is not a cheap process. Really the only thing we are doing is making food last longer! It is not a live or die thing! The government should forget about this, it is only going to bring more and more questions and doubts! Based on my arguments you see how food modification might not be the smartest choice. Although it is already happening I don’t think it should go beyond what it is right now. It is not as healthy at it looks!
Works Cited http://geneticallymodifiedfood.synthasite.com/ http://www.best-whole-food-nutrition.com/whole_food_articles/Genetically_Modified_food_pros_cons.htm http://www.brighthub.com/environment/green-living/articles/7415.aspx