Traits are controlled by dominant and recessive alleles because when there are dominant traits they always show, when there are no dominant traits the recessive traits show. Traits are controlled with co-dominant alleles because neither of the alleles are dominant nor recessive. The alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring by the dominant and recessive alleles.
The Human Genome Project started in 1990. Scientist hoped to use this research to identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. The implications of the Human Genome project in regards to Ethical, legal and Social implications are programs that identify and address these implications have been an integral part of the U.S. HGP since its inception. One ELSI project was with the National Educational Foundation of Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. The sorority planned and conducted major informational conferences on the Human Genome Project and its impact on minority communities. The human genome project changed current laws such as GINA (Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008) because the laws prevented discrimination based on the results of genetic tests. For instance, insurance companies were not allowed to make coverage or pricing decisions based on the results of genetic tests.
There are three different kinds of genetic disorders Single Gene Disorder, Chromosome abnormalities, and Multifactorial Disorders. More than 10,000 different human diseases are caused by Single Gene Disorder. About 100 diseases are caused by chromosome abnormalities. One differences between the three disorders is what causes each of the disorders. Multifactorial Disorder is caused by environmental behavior such as smoking and if you are in the path of radiation. The main cause of Chromosome Abnormalities is when one of the sex cells has one more chromosome or one less chromosome. Single Gene Disorder is caused by inheriting an alternating gene. Genetic counseling helps perspective parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children because it helps the parents understand what types of diseases or disorders their children might have so they are prepared. Karyotypes are used to predict genetic disorders by seeing if you have the right amount of chromosomes.
Human cloning should not be allowed for many reasons. One reason is there is already a very large population of the human race. It will just make more suffering people that have no shelter, food, or warmth. If the world gets overly populated then there will not be enough supplies for everyone. If the human population gets too large the rest of the food chain could become extinct. http://www.globalchange.com/noclones.htm
Another reason why human cloning is dangerous is that if you clone someone, the clone might be a very bad person and do something terrible. For example, if the geneticists decided to clone someone the clone could turn out to be someone like Adolf Hitler. If you create a clone you don’t know if the clone is going to act like the person that was cloned, so you don’t know if the clone will turn out to be someone good or bad.
Human cloning is also bad because it could create new diseases that could harm people. The new diseases could really effect the people and could cost many people their lives if the diseases were to spread.
Another reason why cloning is bad is because someone could abuse the power of the technology and use it to do something terrible. For example, if another country found out the technology to clone humans, then think of the power they would have. They might try to take over different countries which could lead to great disaster.
As you can see human cloning can be very bad and dangerous and is very risky to do. Therefore, human cloning should not receive a federal fund.
"Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Research." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/research/elsi.shtml>. "Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml>. "Reasons Against Cloning - VIDEOS & ARTICLES." Globalchange.com. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. http://hnb.dhs.vic.gov.au/dsonline/dsarticles.nsf/pages/Genetic_disorders?OpenDocument Disability Online. 13 Aug. 2003. Web. 24 Mar. 2011