Designer Babies Megan Harrigan & Nicole Wong Period 1 & 8
Basic Principles• Traits are controlled by dominant and recessive alleles because individual alleles control the inheritance of traits. Some alleles are dominant, while other alleles are recessive. A dominant allele is onewhose trait always shops up in the organism when the allele is present. In co-dominant alleles, there is no dominant or recessive alleles. Arecessive allele is masked, or covered up, whenever the dominant allele is present. When the chromosomes pairs separate. in two two differentsex cells, so do the alleles carried on each chromosome. One allele from each pair goes to each sex cell.
Human Genome• The Human Genome Project started in 1990, was a planned 15 year study controlled by two different parts of the US Government• The project was ﬁnished in 13 years because of new technology that was developed.• This project was created to diagnose,ﬁnd,treat and prevent the 1000’s of disorders.• Goals- Identify all genes in human DNA (between 20,000-25,000),• Determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs in human DNA,• Store this information in computers for later use• Improve the tools for data analysis.• One of the laws that had to be changed in order to do the human genome project was the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act or (GINA). On May 21st, 2008 it was signed by President Bush. This act prohibits U.S insurance companies and employers from discriminating on the basis of information derived from genetic tests. Nany Pelosi says “Because of this legislation, Americans will be free to undergo genetic testing for diseases such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s without fearing for their job or health insurance.
Human Genome Project• http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=gkQJ26DAxfs
Implications of the Genome ProjectThere are two types of Ethical Implications: Genetic Engineering which consists of issues regarding genetic manipulation. And Genetic information, which consists of questions regarding the collection and use of genetic information.What if enhancement engineering does notproduce the desired results? It would be a waste of money.Another question is What if genetic engineering is used for non-medical reasons?
Legal and SocialOnce the genetic information is collected theres manyquestions to ask about the legal and socialimplications, some of these include:Who should have access to personal geneticinformation? Who owns and controls the information?How does this information affect the perception ofthat individual?
Genetic Disorder An example of a singe gene disorder would be Tay- Sachs Disease. Tay- Sachs Disease is an autosomal which is in the nervous system. You can be catch this disease after birth. Children that are homozygous recessive for this allele barley survive past the age of 5. They suffer an ability to make the enzyme N- acetyl-hexosaminidase. That breaks down the ganglioside lipid this lipid is in lysosomes which is in brain cells. Which will soon killthe brain cells.There are many other disorders. They are all medical problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. They all dont have a single genetic. Genetic counseling offers invaluable information to people whose unborn children are atrisk for certain genetic diseases and birth defects—either before they are expecting or once they become pregnant. Genetic testing examines the genetic information contained inside a persons cells to determine if that person has or will develop a certain disease or could pass a disease to his or her offspring. Genetic screening can help make the future clearerfor those with: Advanced maternal age (mothers older than 35)—the most common reason women seek genetic testing or a family history of disorders such as diabetes. Depending on the results from the screening it can change the perspective on a couple wanting to have children in the future.
• A normal human karyotype has 46 chromosomes: 22 pairs of autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes. What happens when a person has something different, such as: Too many or too few chromosomes? Missing pieces of chromosomes? Mixed up pieces of chromosomes?
Scientiﬁc Advancements in Cloning• In 1800 the ﬁrst clones were created by Hans Dreisch, where he used hair to break apart a salamander cell, and as a result there was a clone. It wasn’t very useful but it was a start. Then in 1951, scientists discovered a way to clone frog embryos, which was the ﬁrst nuclear transplant in the world. It was an important experiment because this process is currently still being used today. Next comes Dolly the Lamb. In 1986, Dolly the Lamb was the ﬁrst cloned mammal, and adult sheep. Which was a big step forward for the cloning technology. Like any other experiment it had its fails, but Ian Wilmut the scientist who was cloning Dolly, learned from his mistakes. He ﬁgured out what he was doing wrong, and ﬁnally ﬁgured out he had to freeze the DNA from the adult sheep, making it go into G0 phase (almost like hibernation). When you inject that, the DNA stays the same, and from that it creates an offspring, which means you have cloned an animal. Scientists are continuing to work on this today, and maybe sometime in the future human cloning’s and other objects will exist.
Issues related to Cloning and Genetic Engineering• Lots of issues are related to genetic engineering and cloning. It is more likely for a sexually reproduced embryo to survive than a cloned embryo. A lot of studies have shown that organisms that were born as clones have side effects and defects that appear later in their lives. Another issue would be how the twins act, they may look the same or identical but that doesnt mean that they always think the same or feel the same way all time time or the same taste in something etc. An example of that would be these two characters in the show called The Suite Life of Zac & Cody. They are both different in many ways. One way that they are different is that Zac is not into school at all and he always gets the girls. Cody on the other hand likes school and is a straight A student and would care less about girls.These issues also involve cloning/ genetic engineering of food. Some animals such as a cow for instence has very good meat. Your probably thinking why thats bad but if the cow had birth defects from the cloning or a disease we could have a chance or catching it too. The Government has some part in this too because he talks about this a lot. There are a lot more issues but I just named a couple.
Argument One The whole point of having a baby is the surprise part. Imagine knowing what your baby will look like, be like and act likebefore it even comes out. In this case the whole surprise part would be completely eliminated. Were not supposed to be designed by scientists, your looks should be based on yourparents traits. Most people believe it’s going against nature; andeveryone will be perfect or close to it. No one will have ﬂaws, and as much as how good that seems, no one wants a worldwith no mistakes. It will take away peoples unique qualities and what makes you you. If the designer baby process increases, hopefully it’s for getting rid of medical diseases rather then changing what kids act and look like.
Argument 2If babies born in the United States didn’t have diseasesor died, the population in our country would increase.Based on the people already homeless and with outshelter and food imagine if we used the process ofdesigning your baby to cure diseases at birth. The rateof people living on the streets would go up even higher,because from the people doing drugs and smoking inmiddle school already, it only takes one mistake to ruinyour whole life. Even though it’s sad and depressingthat kids sometimes die early, it also balances outbecause we don’t want the United States to becomeoverpopulated.
Argument 3 Most religious groups oppose this new technology of designer babies, saying that people should accept the children god created. Including the pope who spoke out saying "In developed countries, there is a growing interest for the most sophisticated biotechnological research to introduce subtle and extensive eugenics methods in theobsessive search for the perfect child.” Everyones perfect intheir own way, for parents to change how their child looks at birth is selﬁsh and they don’t really love them. They may love the adult the child came out to be, but no one will ever know what the child was really going to be. The way your child looks shouldn’t effect the way you love him/her. With picking traits you want your child to be, for example smart or athletic may not be what your child wishes to be or enjoys.
Argument 4Designer Babies wouldnt be fair to lower class or lessfortunate people that cant afford to design their baby.Compared to people that can afford it, they would haveperfect children superior to others that didnt getdesigner scientiﬁcally before birth. The higher classwould have perfect IQs and they can change their babyto anything that they would like or thought was perfectbut the lower class doesnt get that. They have to puteffort into things and try hard for goals they want toaccomplish, just like a normal human being should. Bydesigning babies at birth it’s like having robots replacinghumans, everyone will be perfect or close to it atwhatever their parents picked when they were designedas a baby.
ConclusionThe government shouldn’t sponsor and support “DesignerBabies” because we could be spending money on curingcancers, and donating money to charities, instead of pickingbabies characteristics and features.
Works Cited"Human Genetics." Estrella Mountain Community College. M.J Farabee, 18 May 2010. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookhumgen.html>"What Are Complex or Multifactorial Disorders? - Genetics Home Reference." Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide toUnderstanding Genetic Conditions. HONcode Standard, 20 Mar. 2011. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/complexdisorders>.Keim, Brandon. "Designer Babies: A Right to Choose? | Wired Science | Wired.com." Wired.com. 1 Apr. 2009. Web. 24 Mar.2011. <http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/03/designerdebate>.Gayle R., and C. Wilborn. "What Are Designer Babies?" WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions. 2003-2011. Web.24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-designer-babies.htm>.Ess, Amy. "Designer Babies: Trend of the Future, Page 2 of 2." Associated Content from Yahoo! - Associatedcontent.com.Yahoo! News Network, 12 Aug. 2010. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/5651982/designer_babies_trend_of_the_future_pg2.html?cat=68>."Pope Speaks out against Designer Babies | Reuters." Business & Financial News, Breaking US & International News |Reuters.com. Thomas Reuters, 24 Feb. 2007. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/02/24/us-pope-babies-idUSL2443242520070224>.Bartlo, Jenna. "Designer Babies: The Morality of Pursuing Perfection « News & Events « Biola University." Biola University -A Private Christian University in Southern California. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.biola.edu/news/articles/2009/090828_babiesdebate.cf""Designer Babies" Ethical? - The Early Show - CBS News." Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment & WorldNews - CBS News. CBSnews, 3 Mar. 2009. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/03/03/earlyshow/health/main4840346.shtml>.
Works Cited• “History of Cloning.” ORACLE ThinkQuest, Web. <http://library.thinquest.org/20830/Frameless/Manipulating/Expermientation/Cloning/ longdoc.htm>.• “Primer on Ethics and Human Cloning (ActionBioscience).” ActionBioscience - Promoting Bioscience Literacy. Web 15 March. 2011. <http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/ mcgee.html>
Primary Source• http://web.mit.edu/murj/www/v12/v12- Features/v12-f4.pdf Video http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/? id=4840229n&tag=mncol;lst;1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i1-DpvPW- http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=P_UoReSgz84&feature=related